It is important to understand some simple, general principles in order to have a full grasp of Electricity and Electronics
A CR circuit is one that contains both capacitors and resistors (either in series or in parallel). The action of a CR circuit upon a sine wave is to change both the amplitude and the phase of the output signal as compared to the input signal. Universal amplitude/phase tables can be prepared, using the time […]
The reactance of a capacitor for a sine wave signal is given by: where C is the capacitance, in farads and f is frequency, in hertz. Reactance is measured in units of ohms and is defined by the ratio: ˜V/˜I or v/i using the convention noted below, where ˜V is the AC voltage across the […]
The charging and discharging of a capacitor is never instant. When a sudden step of voltage is applied to one plate of a capacitor, the other plate voltage will step in voltage by the same amount. If a resistor is present that connects the second plate to a different voltage level the capacitor will then […]
Two conductors that are not connected and are separated by an insulator constitute a capacitor. When a source of EMF such as a cell is connected to such an arrangement, current flows momentarily, transferring change (in the form of electrons) from one conducting plate (the + plate) to the other. When a quantity of charge […]
Thermistors are resistors made from materials that have large values of temperature coefficient. Both PTC and NTC types are produced for applications that range from temperature measurement to transient current suppression. Figure shows some representative types. Miniature thermistors either in bead form or in glass tubes are used for temperature measurement, using a bridge circuit […]
3dB implies 70%(o.7o7) of the power,i’e we r interested to consider the bandwidth range from peak to 70% b’coz uptp 70% its reliable.hence 3dB is called as half power freq. 3dB value is the mean square value which is 70% of the maximum value.
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding used on IBM mainframe operating systems
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), is a character encoding based on the English alphabet.
Biasing is a process of connecting dc voltage to a device by which we can select the operating point of the device. by biasing actually we select the operating point of the device.
Amplitude Modulation In Amplitude Modulation as the amplitude of given signal varies, the amplitude of carrier signal also varies in the same way. Angle Modulation In Angle Modulation, the frequency or phase may vary according to the amplitude of given signal
In telecommunication, inter symbol interference (ISI) means a form of distortion of a signal that causes the previously transmitted symbols to have an effect on the currently received symbol. This is usually an unwanted phenomenon as the previous symbols have similar effect as noise, thus making the communication less reliable. ISI is usually caused by […]
Diode is a 2 terminal device, in SCR gate controls the rectifying. SCR is used in High frequency applications but diode is low frequency devices, SCR can be in high temperatures but not diode.
An operational amplifier, often called an op-amp , is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and, usually, a single output. Typically the output of the op-amp is controlled either by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain and oscillation.
In electronics, a transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. The transistor is the fundamental building block of computers, and all other modern electronic devices. Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits.
In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device. Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional current property.