Advantages of IC technologyIntegrated circuits have several advantages over individual, or discrete, components.CompactnessAn obvious asset of IC design is economy of space; ICs are far more compact than equiv-alent circuits made from individual transistors, diodes, capacitors, and resistors.A corollary to this is the fact that far more complex circuits can be built, and keptdown to a reasonable size, using ICs as compared with discrete components. Thus, yousee notebook computers, also known as laptops, with capabilities more advanced thanearly computers that took up whole rooms.High speedAnother corollary to the compactness of ICs is the fact that the interconnections amongcomponents are physically tiny, making high switching speeds possible. Electric cur-rents travel fast, but not instantaneously. The less time charge carriers need to get fromcomponent X to component Y, in general, the more computations are possible within agiven span of time, and the less time is needed for complex operations.Low power requirementAnother advantage of ICs is that they use less power than equivalent discrete-componentcircuits. This is especially important if batteries are to be used for operation. Because ICsuse so little current, they produce less heat than their discrete-component equivalents.This translates into better efficiency. It also minimizes the problems that plague equip-ment that gets hot with use, such as frequency drift and generation of internal noise.522 Integrated circuits and data storage media28-1IC packages: SIP (A), DIP (B), flatpack (C), and metalcan (D).