Integrated circuits and data storage media

Chapter Integrated circuits and data storage media

Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Book
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Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Book

  • 28CHAPTERIntegrated circuits anddata storage mediaTHE MOST ADVANCED ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS CONTAIN HUNDREDS,thousands, or even millions of diodes, transistors, resistors, and capacitors. This is es-pecially true of industrial and personal computers. These devices use circuits fabri-cated onto wafers, or chips, of semiconductor material, usually silicon. The chips areenclosed in little boxes or cans with pins for connection to external components.Integrated circuits (ICs) have stimulated as much change as, and perhaps moreevolution than, any other single development in the history of electronic technology.Boxes and cansMost ICs look like gray or black plastic boxes with protruding pins. Common configura-tions are the single inline package (SIP), the dual inline package (DIP) and the flat-pack. Another package looks like a transistor with too many leads. This is a metal-canpackage, sometimes also called a TO package. Examples are shown in Fig. 28-1.Not only does an IC look like a box or can; the schematic symbols for most ICs aresimple geometric shapes such as triangles or rectangles. A component designator isusually written inside the polygon, and the wires emerging from it are labeled accord-ing to their specific functions. But the circuit details are usually too complicated to bedrawn in schematic diagrams. There’s no point in rendering all that detail anyway; itwould only confuse engineers and technicians, and make the schematic diagrams solarge that they might cover a wall, or a football field, or the state of Kansas.So then an IC is a “black box.” The engineer or technician can forget about its innerworkings, just as you don’t dwell upon what’s happening inside your personal computeras you use it. Even with the simplicity of the IC symbol, an apparatus using many ICs canhave nightmarish schematic diagrams, with dozens of wires running around as parallellines so close together that you must run a pencil along them to keep track of them.521Copyright © 2002, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.