Guide to Spectrum and Signal Analysis

Guide to Spectrum and Signal Analysis
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Summary of Contents

Guide to Spectrum and Signal Analysis

  • 2 | Guide to Spectrum and Signal AnalysisCONTENTSINTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................4Frequency Domain / Time Domain .......................................................................................................4SPECTRUM ANALYZERS .........................................................................................................................6Signal Analyzers ...................................................................................................................................7Basic Operation ....................................................................................................................................7Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................8Frequency Range ............................................................................................................................8Frequency Resolution .....................................................................................................................9Sweep Speed ................................................................................................................................12Sensitivity and Noise Figure ..........................................................................................................12Video Filtering or Averaging ..........................................................................................................13Signal Display Range ....................................................................................................................14Dynamic Range .............................................................................................................................16Frequency Accuracy ......................................................................................................................16SIGNAL ANALYZERS .............................................................................................................................17APPLICATIONS .......................................................................................................................................18Amplitude Modulation .........................................................................................................................18Modulation Frequency – fm ...........................................................................................................22Modulation Distortion .....................................................................................................................24Frequency Modulation ........................................................................................................................26Bandwidth of FM Signals ....................................................................................................................27FM Measurements with a Spectrum Analyzer ....................................................................................29AM Plus FM (Incidental FM) ...............................................................................................................32PULSE AND PULSE MODULATED SIGNALS .......................................................................................33Pulse Response ..................................................................................................................................34Pulse Spectrum ...................................................................................................................................35MEASUREMENT EXAMPLES .................................................................................................................35Intermodulation Distortion ...................................................................................................................35C/N measurement ...............................................................................................................................36Occupied Frequency Bandwidth .........................................................................................................37a) XdB Down method ....................................................................................................................37b) N% method ...............................................................................................................................38Adjacent Channel Leakage Power ......................................................................................................39Burst Average Power ..........................................................................................................................40