2Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles 1.2 Standard Form Notation Standard form is a method of writing large and small numbers in a form that is more convenient than writing a large number of trailing or leading zeroes. For example the speed of light is approximately 300 000 000 m/s. When written in standard form this ﬁ gure would appears as 3 01010100 000 00088.m/s, where represents Similarly, if the wavelength of ‘ red ’ light is approximately 0.000 000 767 m, it is more convenient to write it in standard form as 7 6710101 10 000 00077./m, where It should be noted that whenever a ‘ multiplying ’ factor is required, the base 10 is raised to a positive power. When a ‘ dividing ’ factor is required, a negative power is used. This is illustrated below: 10101 100 110100101 1000 01101000101 1000011223/././.000110 3etc.etc. One restriction that is applied when using standard form is that only the ﬁ rst non-zero digit must appear before the decimal point. Thus, 46 500 is written as 465104651043.. and as not Similarly, 0.002 69 is written as 2 691026 91026910345.. and as or not 1.3 ‘ Scientifi c ’ Notation This notation has the advantage of using the base 10 raised to a power but it is not restricted to the placement of the decimal point. It has the added advantage that the base 10 raised to certain powers have unique symbols assigned. For example if a body has a mass m 500 000 g. In standard form this would be written as m50105.g. Using scientiﬁ c notation it would appear as m500500kg ( kilogram)