Capacitor Symbols

What is Capacitance?

Capacitors, C are also simple passive devices. The capacitor is a component which has the ability or “capacity” to store energy in the form of an electrical charge producing a potential difference across its plates. Capacitors consists of two or more parallel conductive metal or foil plates which are not connected or touching each other […]

Connecting Resistors Together

Individual resistors can be connected together in series connections, a parallel connections or combinations of both series and parallel together to produce more complex resistor networks. These resistive networks have an equivalent resistance which is a combination of the individual resistors. Then complicated resistor networks can be replaced by a single equivalent resistor, R(EQUIVALENT). It […]

Resistors in Parallel

Resistors In Parallel

Resistors are said to be connected together in “Parallel” when both of their terminals are respectively connected to each terminal of the other resistor or resistors. Unlike the previous series circuit, in a parallel resistor network the current can take more than one path. Since there are multiple paths for the supply current to flow […]


Resistors In Series

Resistors are said to be connected in “Series“, when they are daisy chained together in a single line. Since all the current flowing through the first resistor has no other way to go it must also pass through the second resistor and the third and so on. Resistors in series have a Common Current flowing […]

Resistor color codes

Resistor Colour Codes

Small resistors use coloured painted bands which represent a number and multiplier to indicate both their resistive value and their tolerance with the physical size of the resistor indicating its wattage rating. These coloured painted bands produce a system of identification generally known as a Resistors Colour Code. Resistor Colour Code Table There are two […]

What is Resistor Power?

Whenever current flows through a resistor heat is produced which represents electrical power in Watts The unit of electrical power is the Watt (W). One watt of power is equal to the work done in one second by one volt of potential difference in moving one coulomb of charge around a circuit. As an ampere is equal to […]

What is Ohms Law?

“Ohms Law states that a voltage, V across a resistor, R is directly proportional to the current, I flowing through the same resistor” The relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance in any DC electrical circuit was firstly discovered by the German physicist Georg Ohm. Georg Ohm found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical current […]

Resistor Symbols

Factors Affecting Resistance

There are four factors  that are affecting resistance Length of Material Cross-sectional Area Type of Material Temperature Length of Material The resistance of a material is directly proportional to its length. The longer the material the more resistance it has. Cross-sectional Area The resistance of a material is indirectly proportional to its width. The wider […]

Unit Of Resistance

The SI unit of resistance is the Ohm with Greek symbol W (Omega). A conductor is said to have a resistance of one ohm when one volt causes one ampere of current to flow through it. Note that Resistance cannot be negative in value only positive and in AC circuits, AC resistance equals DC resistance, […]

Copper Cable

What is Resistance?

The current flowing in an electrical circuit not only depends upon the voltage pushing this current around but also on the resistance of the wires, connections and components that make up the circuit. Resistance, ( R ) of a circuit is its ability to resist or prevent the flow of current (electron flow) through itself […]

Why Is Cable And Antenna Testing Important in Telecommunication System?

During the installation, operation and the maintenance of the telecommunication system the connecting cables, adapters and antennas may become damaged or show reduced performance over time. This is known that fifty to sixty percent of cellular base station problems are caused by the faulty cables, connectors and the antennas. Failure in these components causes poor […]

Phase Shift Keying

Digital Modulation and Shift Keying

“Modulation of digital signals is known as Shift Keying” There are 3 Digital Modulation: Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Pros: simple Cons: susceptible to noise Example: Many legacy wireless systems, e.g. AMR Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Pros: less susceptible to the noise Cons: theoretically […]

Amplitude modulation

Modulation Methods

We have a low frequency signal and want to send it at a high frequency, for this modulation is required. “Modulation is the process of superimposing the low frequency signal onto the high frequency signal”. Modulation Schemes There are three modulation schemes are available: Amplitude Modulation (AM) Amplitude Modulation is the amplitude of the carrier […]

VXI Bus Card P3 connector

The P3 connector is the least used as it is only available on the large format D-sized cards. It basically provides additional expansion over that available on the P2 connector. In this it provides 24 more local bus lines as well as further ECL trigger lines. one more clock is also available on this connector […]

VXI Bus Card P2 Connector

The P2 connector is present on all card sizes except the A sized card which is the most basic. The P2 connector provides additional capabilities: it expands the data bus to the maximum size of 32 bits. This adds four additional power supply voltages to provide the wider selection for on-card or on-module requirements; it […]

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