Electrons and Electricity

Surrounding the nucleus of an atom are particles having opposite electric charge from the protons. These are the electrons. Physicists arbitrarily call the electrons’ charge negative, and the protons’ charge positive. An electron has exactly the same charge quantity as a proton, but with opposite polarity. The charge on a single electron or proton is […]

Isotopes, Atomic Weights and Atomic Number

For a given element such as oxygen the number of neutrons can vary. But no matter what the number of neutrons, the element keeps its identity, based on the atomic number. Differing numbers of neutrons result in various isotopes for a given element. Each element has one particular isotope that is most often found in […]

Protons Neutrons and Atomic Number

The part of an atom that gives an element its identity is the nucleus. It is made up of two kinds of particles, the proton and the neutron. These are extremely dense. A teaspoonful of either of these particles, packed tightly together, would weigh tons. Protons and neutrons have just about the same mass but […]


All matter is made up of countless tiny particles whizzing around. These particles are extremely dense; matter is mostly empty space. Matter seems continuous because the particles are so small, and they move incredibly fast. Even people of ancient times suspected that matter is made of invisible particles. They deduced this from observing things like […]


What is Operational Amplifiers?

Operational Amplifiers, or “Op-amps” as they are more commonly called, are linear devices that have all the properties required for nearly ideal DC amplification and are therefore used extensively in signal conditioning, filtering or to perform mathematical operations (hence their name “operational”) such as add, subtract, integration and differentiation. An ideal Operational Amplifier is basically […]

MOSFET Configurations

What is MOSFET? Type and Disadvantages

“MOSFET’s are voltage controlled devices which have insulated gates resulting in an input impedance many times higher than a JFET” As well as the Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET), there is another type of Field Effect Transistor available whose Gate input is electrically insulated from the main current carrying channel and is therefore called an […]

Field Effect Transistor Configurations

Field Effect Transistor and Configurations

The Field Effect Transistor, or FET is another three terminal semiconductor device used for switch and amplifier application as it has very similar characteristics to those of the previous bipolar junction transistor. The field effect transistor is a unipolar device since the flow of current through it is carried out by the majority carriers only. […]


What is Bipolar Junction Transistor and Operating Regions?

“Transistors are electronic devices that can amplify voltages, currents and power by the application of a small signal voltage on one lead” The transistor is another electronic device made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small change in current on one lead […]

Zener Diode I-V Characteristics

What Is  Zener Diode?

“The zener diode is a special type of diode designed to operate in the reverse bias direction and is used to stabilize or regulate a voltage” As stated previously, a semiconductor junction diode blocks the flow of current in the reverse direction. However, if we increase the reverse voltage across the diode sufficiently high enough, […]

Bridge Rectifier

Applications of Diodes | Half-Wave, Full-Wave & Bridge Rectifier

A very common application of diodes is half-wave rectification, where either the positive or negative half of the input voltage is blocked. Half-Wave Rectification Full-Wave Rectification A full-wave rectifier passes both the negative and positive half cycles of the input, while inverting the negative half of the input. A full-wave rectifier circuit reduces the ripple […]

What is Semiconductor Diode?

A diode is one of the simplest semiconductor devices, which has the characteristic of passing current in one direction only. However, unlike a resistor, a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as the diode has an exponential I-V relationship and therefore we cannot described its operation by simply using an […]

What is Semiconductors?

Semiconductors materials such as Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), have electrical properties somewhere between those of a “conductor” and an “insulator”. They neither are not good conductors nor are they good insulators (hence their name “semi”-conductors). They have very few “fee electrons” in their valence shell because their atoms are closely grouped […]


What is RC Filters?

RC filters are designed to modify, reshape or reject all unwanted frequencies of an electrical signal and accept or pass only those signals wanted by the circuit’s designer. In other words they “filter-out” unwanted signals. Filters are named according to the frequency range of signals that they allow to pass through them, while blocking or […]


What is Band Stop RC Filter?

The band stop or notch filter is another filter design with two corner or cut-off frequencies. The band stop filter blocks (rejects) or severely attenuates a certain band of frequencies between its two corner frequencies while allowing all those outside of this stop-band to pass. A second-order RC band stop filter is constructed as follows: […]


What is Band Pass RC Filter?

A band pass filter blocks all low frequencies below it lower corner frequency and all high frequency above its upper corner frequency only allowing frequency signals in between to pass. Then a band pass filter has two corner or cutoff frequencies. A second-order RC band pass filter is constructed as follows:

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