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Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Manual

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    Spectrum Analysis Back to Basics – Definitions and Measurements

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  • Spectrum Analysis Back to Basics – Definitions and Measurements
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    3.0 GHz Spectrum Analyzer GSP830 User Manual

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    Interference Testing with Handheld Spectrum Analyzers Manual

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    Agilent Spectrum Analyzer Measurements and Noise – 1303 Application Note Manual

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    FSP Spectrum Analyzer Test and Measurement Operating Manual

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    Noise Measurements with a Spectrum Analyzer – Noise Tutorial Part VI Book

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    Spectrum Analyzer CW Power Measurements and the Effects of Noise

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    Measurement Guide and Programming Manual For Spectrum Analyzers PSA and ESA Series

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  • Measurement Guide and Programming Manual For Spectrum Analyzers PSA and ESA Series

    Table of Content

    Measurement Guide and Programming Manual For Spectrum Analyzers PSA and ESA Series

    CH-1. Recommended Test Equipment

    CH-2. Measuring Multiple Signals

    Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta Pair Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals Decreasing the Frequency Span Around the Signal

    CH-3. Measuring a Low−Level Signal

    Reducing Input Attenuation Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth Using the Average Detector and Increased Sweep Time Trace Averaging

    CH-4. Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy

    Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and Accuracy

    CH-5. Tracking Drifting Signals

    Measuring a Source’s Frequency Drift Tracking a Signal

    CH-6. Making Distortion Measurements

    Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion Measuring TOI Distortion with a One-Button Measurement Measuring Harmonics and Harmonic Distortion with a One-Button Measurement

    CH-7. Measuring Noise

    Measuring Signal-to-Noise Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using Marker Pairs Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement

    CH-8. Making Time-Gated Measurements

    Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal Connecting the Instruments to Make Time-Gated Measurements Gated LO Measurement (PSA) Gated Video Measurement (ESA) Gated FFT Measurement (PSA)

    CH-9. Measuring Digital Communications Signals

    Making Burst Power Measurements Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF) Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements Making Multi-Carrier Power (MCP) Measurements

    CH-10.Using External Millimeter Mixers (Option AYZ)

    Making Measurements With Agilent 11970 Series Harmonic Mixers Setting Harmonic Mixer Bias Current Entering Conversion-Loss Correction Data for Harmonic Mixers Making Measurements with Agilent 11974 Series Preselected Harmonic Mixers Frequency Tracking Calibration with Agilent 11974 Series Preselected Harmonic Mixers

    CH-11.Demodulating AM and FM Signals

    Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal Measuring the Modulation Index of an AM Signal Demodulating an AM Signal Using the ESA Series Demodulating an FM Signal Using the ESA-E Series (Requires Option BAA)

    CH-12.Using Segmented Sweep (ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers)

    Measuring Harmonics Using Standard Sweep Measuring Harmonics Using Segmented Sweep Using Segmented Sweep With Limit Lines Using Segmented Sweep to Monitor the Cellular Activity of a cdmaOne Band

    CH-13.Stimulus Response Measurements (ESA Options 1DN and 1DQ)

    Making a Stimulus Response Transmission Measurement Calculating the N dB Bandwidth Using Stimulus Response Measuring Stop Band Attenuation Using Log Sweep (ESA-E Series) Making a Reflection Calibration Measurement Measuring Return Loss using the Reflection Calibration Routine

    CH-14.Demodulating and Viewing Television Signals (ESA-E Series Option B7B)

    Demodulating and Viewing Television Signals Measuring Depth of Modulation

    CH-15.Concepts

    Resolving Closely Spaced Signals Harmonic Distortion Calculations Time Gating Concepts Trigger Concepts . AM and FM Demodulation Concepts Stimulus Response Measurement Concepts

    CH-16.ESA/PSA Programming Examples

    Examples Included in this Chapter: Finding Additional Examples and More Information Programming Examples Information and Requirements Programming in C Using the VTL Using C to Make a Power Suite ACPR Measurement on a cdmaOne Signal Using C to Serial Poll the Analyzer to Determine when an Auto-alignment is Complete Using C and Service Request (SRQ) to Determine When a Measurement is Complete Using Visual Basic®6 to Capture a Screen Image Using Visual Basic®6 to Transfer Binary Trace Data Using Agilent VEE to Transfer Trace Data

    CH-17.ESA Programming Examples

    Examples Included in this Chapter: Programming Examples System Requirements Using C with Marker Peak Search and Peak Excursion Measurement Routines Using C for Marker Delta Mode and Marker Minimum Search Functions Using C to Perform Internal Self-Alignment Using C to Read Trace Data in an ASCII Format (over GPIB) Using C to Read Trace Data in a 32-Bit Real Format (over GPIB) Using C to Read Trace Data in an ASCII Format (over RS-232) Using C to Read Trace Data in a 32-bit Real Format (over RS-232) Using C to Add Limit Lines Using C to Measure Noise Using C to Enter Amplitude Correction Data Using C to Determine if an Error has Occurred Using C to Measure Harmonic Distortion (over GPIB) Using C to Measure Harmonic Distortion (over RS-232) Using C to Make Faster Power Averaging Measurements

    CH-18.PSA Programming Examples

    Examples Included in this Chapter: Programming Examples Information and Requirements Using C with Marker Peak Search and Peak Excursion Measurement Routines Using C for Saving and Recalling Instrument State Data Using C to Save Binary Trace Data Using C to Make a Power Calibration Measurement for a GSM Mobile Handset Using C with the CALCulate:DATA:COMPress? RMS Command Using C Over Socket LAN (UNIX) Using C Over Socket LAN (Windows NT) Using Java Programming Over Socket LAN Using the VXI Plug-N-Play Driver in LabVIEW®. Using LabVIEW®6 to Make an EDGE GSM Measurement Using Visual Basic®.NET with the IVI-Com Driver Using Agilent VEE to Capture the Equivalent SCPI Learn String

    Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design Second Edition Book

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  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design Second Edition Book

    Table of Content

    Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design Second Edition Book

    Chapter-1 Introduction to Communications Circuits 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Lower Frequency Analog Design and Microwave Design Versus Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuit Design 1.2.1 Impedance Levels for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Design 1.2.2 Units for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Design 1.3 Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits Used in a Communications Transceiver 1.4 Overview References ChaptER 2 Issues in RFIC Design: Noise, Linearity, and Signals 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Noise 2.2.1 Thermal Noise 2.2.2 Available Noise Power 2.2.3 Available Power from Antenna 2.2.4 The Concept of Noise Figure 2.2.5 The Noise Figure of an Amplifer Circuit 2.2.6 Phase Noise 2.3 Linearity and Distortion in RF Circuits 2.3.1 Power Series Expansion 2.3.2 Third-Order Intercept Point 2.3.3 Second-Order Intercept Point 2.3.4 The 1-dB Compression Point 2.3.5 Relationships Between 1-dB Compression and IP3 Points 2.3.6 Broadband Measures of Linearity 2.4 Modulated Signals 2.4.1 Phase Modulation 2.4.2 Frequency Modulation 2.4.3 Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) 2.4.4 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 2.4.5 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) ChaptER 3 System Level Architecture and Design Considerations 3.1 Transmitter and Receiver Architectures and Some Design Considerations 3.1.1 Superheterodyne Transceivers 3.1.2 Direct Conversion Transceivers Low IF Transceiver and Other Alternative Transceiver Architectures System Level Considerations The Noise Figure of Components in Series 3.2.2 The Linearity of Components in Series 3.2.3 Dynamic Range 3.2.4 Image Signals and Image Reject Filtering 3.2.5 Blockers and Blocker Filtering 3.2.6 The Effect of Phase Noise on SNR in a Receiver 3.2.7 DC Offset 3.2.8 Second-Order Nonlinearity Issues 3.2.9 Receiver Automatic Gain Control Issues 3.2.10 EVM in Transmitters Including Phase Noise, Linearity, IQ Mismatch, EVM with OFDM Waveforms, and Nonlinearity 3.2.11 ADC and DAC Specifcations 3.3 Antennas and the Link Between a Transmitter and a Receiver Chapter 4 A Brief Review of Technology 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Bipolar Transistor Description 4.3 b Current Dependence 4.4 Small-Signal Model 4.5 Small-Signal Parameters 4.6 High-Frequency Effects 4.6.1 fT as a Function of Current 4.7 Noise in Bipolar Transistors 4.7.1 Thermal Noise in Transistor Components 4.7.2 Shot Noise 4.7.3 1/f Noise 4.8 Base Shot Noise Discussion 4.9 Noise Sources in the Transistor Model 4.10 Bipolar Transistor Design Considerations 4.11 CMOS Transistors 4.11.1 NMOS Transistor Operation 4.11.2 PMOS Transistor Operation 4.11.3 CMOS Small-Signal Model 4.11.4 fT and fmax for CMOS Transistors 4.11.5 CMOS Small-Signal Model Including Noise 4.12 Practical Considerations in Transistor Layout 4.12.1 Typical Transistors 4.12.2 Symmetry 4.12.3 Matching 4.12.4 ESD Protection and Antenna Rules Impedance Matching 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Review of the Smith Chart 5.3 Impedance Matching 5.4 Conversions Between Series and Parallel Resistor-Inductor and Resistor-Capacitor Circuits 5.5 Tapped Capacitors and Inductors 5.6 The Concept of Mutual Inductance 5.7 Matching Using Transformers 5.8 Tuning a Transformer 5.9 The Bandwidth of an Impedance Transformation Network 5.10 Quality Factor of an LC Resonator 5.11 Broadband Impedance Matching 5.12 Transmission Lines 5.13 S, Y, and Z Parameters Chapter 6 The Use and Design of Passive Circuit Elements in IC Technologies 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Technology Back End and Metalization in IC Technologies 6.3 Sheet Resistance and the Skin Effect 6.4 Parasitic Capacitance 6.5 Parasitic Inductance 6.6 Current Handling in Metal Lines 6.7 Poly Resistors and Diffusion Resistors 6.8 Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors and Stacked Metal Capacitors 6.9 Applications of On-Chip Spiral Inductors and Transformers 6.10 Design of Inductors and Transformers 6.11 Some Basic Lumped Models for Inductors 6.12 Calculating the Inductance of Spirals 6.13 Self-Resonance of Inductors 6.14 The Quality Factor of an Inductor 6.15 Characterization of an Inductor 6.16 Some Notes about the Proper Use of Inductors 6.17 Layout of Spiral Inductors 6.18 Isolating the Inductor 6.19 The Use of Slotted Ground Shields and Inductors 6.20 Basic Transformer Layouts in IC Technologies 6.21 Multilevel Inductors 6.22 Characterizing Transformers for Use in ICs 6.23 On-Chip Transmission Lines 6.23.1 Effect of Transmission Line 6.23.2 Transmission Line Examples 6.24 High-Frequency Measurement of On-Chip Passives and Some Common De-Embedding Techniques 6.25 Packaging 6.25.1 Other Packaging Techniques and Board Level Technology Chapter-7 LNA Design 7.1 Introduction and Basic Amplifers 7.1.1 Common-Emitter/Source Amplifer (Driver) 7.1.2 Simplifed Expressions for Widely Separated Poles 7.1.3 The Common-Base/Gate Amplifer (Cascode) 7.1.4 The Common-Collector/Drain Amplifer (Emitter/Source Follower) 7.2 Amplifers with Feedback 7.2.1 Common-Emitter/Source with Series Feedback (Emitter/Source Degeneration) 7.2.2 The Common-Emitter/Source with Shunt Feedback 7.3 Noise in Amplifers 7.3.1 Input Referred Noise Model of the Bipolar Transistor 7.3.2 Noise Figure of the Common-Emitter Amplifer 7.3.3 Noise Model of the CMOS Transistor 7.3.4 Input Matching of LNAs for Low Noise 7.3.5 Relationship Between Noise Figure and Bias Current 7.3.6 Effect of the Cascode on Noise Figure 7.3.7 Noise in the Common-Collector/Drain Amplifer 7.4 Linearity in Amplifers 7.4.1 Exponential Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistor 7.4.2 Nonlinearity in the CMOS Transistor 7.4.3 Nonlinearity in the Output Impedance of the Bipolar Transistor 7.4.4 High-Frequency Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistor 7.4.5 Linearity in Common-Collector/Drain Confguration 7.5 Stability 7.6 Differential Amplifers 7.6.1 Bipolar Differential Pair 7.6.2 Linearity in Bipolar Differential Pairs 7.6.3 CMOS Differential Pair 7.6.4 Linearity of the CMOS Differential Pair 7.7 Low Voltage Topologies for LNAs and the Use of On-Chip Transformers 7.8 DC Bias Networks 7.8.1 Temperature Effects 7.8.2 Temperature Independent Reference Generators 7.8.3 Constant GM Biasing for CMOS 7.9 Broadband LNA Design Example 7.10 Distributed Amplifers 7.10.1 Trasmission Lines 7.10.2 Steps in Designing the Distributed Amplifer References Selected Bibliography ChaptER 8 Mixers 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Mixing with Nonlinearity 8.3 Basic Mixer Operation 8.4 Transconductance-Controlled Mixer 8.5 Double-Balanced Mixer 8.6 Mixer with Switching of Upper Quad 8.6.1 Why LO Switching? 8.6.2 Picking the LO Level 8.6.3 Analysis of Switching Modulator 8.7 Mixer Noise 8.7.1 Summary of Bipolar Mixer Noise Components 8.7.2 Summary of CMOS Mixer Noise Components 8.8 Linearity 8.8.1 Desired Nonlinearity 8.8.2 Undesired Nonlinearity 8.9 Improving Isolation 8.10 General Design Comments 8.10.1 Sizing Transistors 8.10.2 Increasing Gain 8.10.3 Improvement of IP3 8.10.4 Improving Noise Figure 8.10.5 Effect of Bond Pads and the Package 8.10.6 Matching, Bias Resistors, Gain 8.11 Image-Reject and Single-Sideband Mixer 8.11.1 Alternative Single-Sideband Mixers 8.11.2 Generating 90° Phase Shift 8.11.3 Image Rejection with Amplitude and Phase Mismatch 8.12 Alternative Mixer Designs 8.12.1 The Moore Mixer 8.12.2 Mixers with Transformer Input 8.12.3 Mixer with Simultaneous Noise and Power Match 8.12.4 Mixers with Coupling Capacitors 8.12.5 CMOS Mixer with Current Reuse 8.12.6 Integrated Passive Mixer 8.12.7 Subsampling Mixer Selected Bibliography ChaptER 9 Voltage Controlled Oscillators 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The LC Resonator 9.3 Adding Negative Resistance Through Feedback to the Resonator 9.4 Popular Implementations of Feedback to the Resonator 9.5 Confguration of the Amplifer (Colpitts or –Gm) 9.6 Analysis of an Oscillator as a Feedback System 9.6.1 Oscillator Closed-Loop Analysis 9.6.2 Capacitor Ratios with Colpitts Oscillators 9.6.3 Oscillator Open-Loop Analysis 9.6.4 Simplifed Loop Gain Estimates 9.7 Negative Resistance Generated by the Amplifer 9.7.1 Negative Resistance of the Colpitts Oscillator 9.7.2 Negative Resistance for Series and Parallel Circuits 9.7.3 Negative Resistance Analysis of –Gm Oscillator 9.8 Comments on Oscillator Analysis 9.9 Basic Differential Oscillator Topologies 9.10 A Modifed Common-Collector Colpitts Oscillator with Buffering 9.11 Several Refnements to the –Gm Topology Using Bipolar Transistors 9.12 The Effect of Parasitics on the Frequency of Oscillation 9.13 Large-Signal Nonlinearity in the Transistor 9.14 Bias Shifting During Startup 9.15 Colpitts Oscillator Amplitude 9.16 –Gm Oscillator Amplitude 9.17 Phase Noise 9.17.1 Linear or Additive Phase Noise and Leeson’s Formula 9.17.2 Some Additional Notes About Low-Frequency Noise 9.17.3 Nonlinear Noise 9.17.4 Impulse Sensitivity Noise Analysis 9.18 Making the Oscillator Tunable 9.19 Low-Frequency Phase-Noise Upconversion Reduction Techniques 9.19.1 Bank Switching 9.19.2 gm Matching and Waveform Symmetry 9.19.3 Differential Varactors and Differential Tuning 9.20 VCO Automatic-Amplitude Control Circuits 9.21 Supply Noise Filters in Oscillators, Example Circuit 9.22 Ring Oscillators 9.23 Quadrature Oscillators and Injection Locking 9.23.1 Phase Shift of Injection Locked Oscillator 9.23.2 Parallel Coupled Quadrature LC Oscillators 9.23.3 Series Coupled Quadrature Oscillators 9.23.4 Other Quadrature Generation Techniques 9.24 Other Oscillators 9.24.1 Multivibrators 9.24.2 Crystal Oscillators Selected Bibliography ChaptER 10 Frequency Synthesis 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Integer-N PLL Synthesizers 10.3 PLL Components 10.3.1 Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) and Dividers 10.3.2 Phase Detectors 10.3.3 The Loop Filter 10.4 Continuous-Time Analysis for PLL Synthesizers 10.4.1 Simplifed Loop Equations 10.4.2 PLL System Frequency Response and Bandwidth 10.4.3 Complete Loop Transfer Function Including C2 10.5 Discrete Time Analysis for PLL Synthesizers 10.6 Transient Behavior of PLLs 10.6.1 PLL Linear Transient Behavior 10.6.2 Nonlinear Transient Behavior 10.6.3 Various Noise Sources in PLL Synthesizers 10.6.4 In-Band and Out-of-Band Phase Noise in PLL Synthesis 10.7 Fractional-N PLL Frequency Synthesizers 10.7.1 Fractional-N Synthesizer with a Dual Modulus Prescaler 10.7.2 Fractional-N Synthesizer with Multimodulus Divider 10.7.3 Fractional-N Spurious Components References ChaptER 11 Power Amplifers 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Power Capability 11.3 Effciency Calculations 11.4 Matching Considerations 11.4.1 Matching to S22* Versus Matching to Gopt 11.5 Class A, B, and C Amplifers 11.5.1 Class B Push-Pull Arrangements 11.5.2 Models for Transconductance 11.6 Class D Amplifers 11.7 Class E Amplifers 11.7.1 Analysis of Class E Amplifer 11.7.2 Class E Equations 11.7.3 Class E Equations for Finite Output Q 11.7.4 Saturation Voltage and Resistance 11.7.5 Transition Time 11.8 Class F Amplifers 11.8.1 Variation on Class F: Second-Harmonic Peaking 11.8.2 Variation on Class F: Quarter-Wave Transmission Lines 11.9 Class G and H Amplifers 11.10 Summary of Amplifer Classes for RF Integrated Circuits 11.11 AC Load Line 11.12 Matching to Achieve Desired Power 11.13 Transistor Saturation 11.14 Current Limits 11.15 Current Limits in Integrated Inductors 11.16 Power Combining 11.17 Thermal Runaway—Ballasting 11.18 Breakdown Voltage and Biasing 11.19 Packaging 11.20 Effects and Implications of Nonlinearity 11.20.1 Cross Modulation 11.20.2 AM-to-PM Conversion 11.20.3 Spectral Regrowth 11.20.4 Linearization Techniques 11.20.5 Feedforward 11.20.6 Feedback 11.20.7 Predistortion 11.21 CMOS Power Amplifer Examples

    Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

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  • Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

    Table of Content

    Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

    Learning Objectives Overview: What is Spectrum Analysis Types of Tests Made Frequency Versus Time Domain Fourier Spectrum Analyzer Swept-Tuned Spectrum Analyzer Overview: Spectrum analysis Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram The Mixer: Key to a Wide Frequency Range Intermediate Frequency (IF) Filter Detector Video Filter Local Oscillator and Sweep Generator Input Attenuator and IF Gain Circuits What Spectrum Analyzer Specifications are Important Frequency Range Getting the Frequency Range You Need Frequency and Amplitude Accuracy Signal Resolution IF Filter Bandwidth Resolving Two Equal-level Signals Resolving Two Unequal-level Signals Resolving Two Unequal-level Signals Residual FM Noise Sidebands (Phase Noise) Sweep Rate Analog versus Digital Resolution Bandwidths Rules to Analyze By: Use the Analyzer’s Automatic Settings Whenever Possible Sensitivity and Displayed Average Noise Level RF Input Attenuator Effects IF Filter (Resolution Bandwidth) Effects Video Bandwidth Effects Sensitivity - the smallest signal that can be measured Rules to Analyze By: Getting the Best Sensitivity Requires Three Settings Where is Distortion Generated Most Influential Distortion is the Second and Third Order Distortion Increases as a Function of the Fundamentals Power How Distortion Amplitudes Change Plotting Distortion as a Function of Mixer Level Rules to Analyze by: A Simple Distortion Test Dynamic Range -Optimum Amplitude Difference Between Large and Small Signals Displayed Noise Limits Dynamic Range Dynamic Range as a Function of Distortion and Noise Level Close-in Dynamic Range Limited by Noise Sidebands Rules to Analyze by: Determining Dynamic Range Dynamic Range is Defined by Your Application Summary RF spectrum analyzer Agilent Spectrum Analyzer Product Families - Swept Tuned Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer Product Families