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Measurement Guide and Programming Manual For Spectrum Analyzers PSA and ESA Series

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  • Measurement Guide and Programming Manual For Spectrum Analyzers PSA and ESA Series

    Table of Content

    Measurement Guide and Programming Manual For Spectrum Analyzers PSA and ESA Series

    CH-1. Recommended Test Equipment

    CH-2. Measuring Multiple Signals

    Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta Comparing Signals on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta Pair Comparing Signals not on the Same Screen Using Marker Delta Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals Decreasing the Frequency Span Around the Signal

    CH-3. Measuring a Low−Level Signal

    Reducing Input Attenuation Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth Using the Average Detector and Increased Sweep Time Trace Averaging

    CH-4. Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy

    Using a Frequency Counter to Improve Frequency Resolution and Accuracy

    CH-5. Tracking Drifting Signals

    Measuring a Source’s Frequency Drift Tracking a Signal

    CH-6. Making Distortion Measurements

    Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion Measuring TOI Distortion with a One-Button Measurement Measuring Harmonics and Harmonic Distortion with a One-Button Measurement

    CH-7. Measuring Noise

    Measuring Signal-to-Noise Measuring Noise Using the Noise Marker Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using Marker Pairs Measuring Noise-Like Signals Using the Channel Power Measurement

    CH-8. Making Time-Gated Measurements

    Generating a Pulsed-RF FM Signal Connecting the Instruments to Make Time-Gated Measurements Gated LO Measurement (PSA) Gated Video Measurement (ESA) Gated FFT Measurement (PSA)

    CH-9. Measuring Digital Communications Signals

    Making Burst Power Measurements Making Statistical Power Measurements (CCDF) Making Adjacent Channel Power (ACP) Measurements Making Multi-Carrier Power (MCP) Measurements

    CH-10.Using External Millimeter Mixers (Option AYZ)

    Making Measurements With Agilent 11970 Series Harmonic Mixers Setting Harmonic Mixer Bias Current Entering Conversion-Loss Correction Data for Harmonic Mixers Making Measurements with Agilent 11974 Series Preselected Harmonic Mixers Frequency Tracking Calibration with Agilent 11974 Series Preselected Harmonic Mixers

    CH-11.Demodulating AM and FM Signals

    Measuring the Modulation Rate of an AM Signal Measuring the Modulation Index of an AM Signal Demodulating an AM Signal Using the ESA Series Demodulating an FM Signal Using the ESA-E Series (Requires Option BAA)

    CH-12.Using Segmented Sweep (ESA-E Series Spectrum Analyzers)

    Measuring Harmonics Using Standard Sweep Measuring Harmonics Using Segmented Sweep Using Segmented Sweep With Limit Lines Using Segmented Sweep to Monitor the Cellular Activity of a cdmaOne Band

    CH-13.Stimulus Response Measurements (ESA Options 1DN and 1DQ)

    Making a Stimulus Response Transmission Measurement Calculating the N dB Bandwidth Using Stimulus Response Measuring Stop Band Attenuation Using Log Sweep (ESA-E Series) Making a Reflection Calibration Measurement Measuring Return Loss using the Reflection Calibration Routine

    CH-14.Demodulating and Viewing Television Signals (ESA-E Series Option B7B)

    Demodulating and Viewing Television Signals Measuring Depth of Modulation

    CH-15.Concepts

    Resolving Closely Spaced Signals Harmonic Distortion Calculations Time Gating Concepts Trigger Concepts . AM and FM Demodulation Concepts Stimulus Response Measurement Concepts

    CH-16.ESA/PSA Programming Examples

    Examples Included in this Chapter: Finding Additional Examples and More Information Programming Examples Information and Requirements Programming in C Using the VTL Using C to Make a Power Suite ACPR Measurement on a cdmaOne Signal Using C to Serial Poll the Analyzer to Determine when an Auto-alignment is Complete Using C and Service Request (SRQ) to Determine When a Measurement is Complete Using Visual Basic®6 to Capture a Screen Image Using Visual Basic®6 to Transfer Binary Trace Data Using Agilent VEE to Transfer Trace Data

    CH-17.ESA Programming Examples

    Examples Included in this Chapter: Programming Examples System Requirements Using C with Marker Peak Search and Peak Excursion Measurement Routines Using C for Marker Delta Mode and Marker Minimum Search Functions Using C to Perform Internal Self-Alignment Using C to Read Trace Data in an ASCII Format (over GPIB) Using C to Read Trace Data in a 32-Bit Real Format (over GPIB) Using C to Read Trace Data in an ASCII Format (over RS-232) Using C to Read Trace Data in a 32-bit Real Format (over RS-232) Using C to Add Limit Lines Using C to Measure Noise Using C to Enter Amplitude Correction Data Using C to Determine if an Error has Occurred Using C to Measure Harmonic Distortion (over GPIB) Using C to Measure Harmonic Distortion (over RS-232) Using C to Make Faster Power Averaging Measurements

    CH-18.PSA Programming Examples

    Examples Included in this Chapter: Programming Examples Information and Requirements Using C with Marker Peak Search and Peak Excursion Measurement Routines Using C for Saving and Recalling Instrument State Data Using C to Save Binary Trace Data Using C to Make a Power Calibration Measurement for a GSM Mobile Handset Using C with the CALCulate:DATA:COMPress? RMS Command Using C Over Socket LAN (UNIX) Using C Over Socket LAN (Windows NT) Using Java Programming Over Socket LAN Using the VXI Plug-N-Play Driver in LabVIEW®. Using LabVIEW®6 to Make an EDGE GSM Measurement Using Visual Basic®.NET with the IVI-Com Driver Using Agilent VEE to Capture the Equivalent SCPI Learn String

    C++ Complete Reference Book 3rd Edition

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  • C++ Complete Reference Book 3rd Edition

    Table of Content

    C++ Complete Reference Book 3rd Edition

    Part I - The Foundation of C++: The C Subset

    Chapter-1 An Overview of C

    The Origins of C C Is a Middle-Level Language C Is a Structured Language C Is a Programmer's Language The Form of a C Program The Library and Linking Separate Compilation Understanding the .C and .CPP File Extensions

    Chapter-2 Expressions

    The Five Basic Data Types Modifying the Basic Types Identifier Names Variables Where Variables Are Declared Local Variables Formal Parameters Global Variables Access Modifiers const volatile Storage Class Specifiers extern static Variables register Variables Variable Initializations Constants Hexadecimal and Octal Constants String Constants Backslash Character Constants Operators The Assignment Operator Type Conversion in Assignments Multiple Assignments Arithmetic Operators Increment and Decrement Relational and Logical Operators Bitwise Operators The ? Operator The & and * Pointer Operators The Compile-Time Operator sizeof The Comma Operator The Dot (.) and Arrow (−>) Operators The [ ] and ( ) Operators Precedence Summary Expressions Order of Evaluation Type Conversion in Expressions Casts Spacing and Parentheses Shorthand Assignments

    Chapter-3 Statements

    True and False in C and C++ Selection Statements if Nested ifs The if-else-if Ladder The ? Alternative The Conditional Expression switch Nested switch Statements Iteration Statements The for Loop for Loop Variations The Infinite Loop for Loops with No Bodies The while Loop The do-while Loop Declaring Variables within Selection and Iteration Statements Jump Statements The return Statement The goto Statement The break Statement The exit( ) Function The continue Statement Expression Statements Block Statements

    Chapter-4 Arrays and Null-Terminated Strings

    Single-Dimension Arrays Generating a Pointer to an Array Passing Single-Dimension Arrays to Functions Null-Terminated Strings Two-Dimensional Arrays Arrays of Strings Multidimensional Arrays Indexing Pointers Array Initialization Unsized Array Initializations A Tic-Tac-Toe Example

    Chapter-5 Pointers

    What Are Pointers? Pointer Variables The Pointer Operators Pointer Expressions Pointer Assignments Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Comparisons Pointers and Arrays Arrays of Pointers Multiple Indirection Initializing Pointers Pointers to Functions C's Dynamic Allocation Functions Problems with Pointers

    Chapter-6 Functions

    The General Form of a Function Scope Rules of Functions Function Arguments Call by Value, Call by Reference Creating a Call by Reference Calling Functions with Arrays argc and argv—Arguments to main( ) The return Statement Returning from a Function Returning Values Returning Pointers Functions of Type void What Does main( ) Return? Recursion Function Prototypes Standard Library Function Prototypes Declaring Variable-Length Parameter Lists Old-Style Versus Modern Function Parameter Declarations Implementation Issues Parameters and General-Purpose Functions Efficiency

    Chapter-7 Structures, Unions, Enumerations, and User-Defined Types

    Structures Accessing Structure Members Structure Assignments Arrays of Structures Passing Structures to Functions Passing Structure Members to Functions Passing Entire Structures to Functions Structure Pointers Declaring a Structure Pointer Using Structure Pointers Arrays and Structures Within Structures Bit-Fields Unions Enumerations Using sizeof to Ensure Portability typedef

    Chapter-8 C-Style Console I/O

    An Important Application Note Reading and Writing Characters A Problem with getchar( ) Alternatives to getchar( ) Reading and Writing Strings Formatted Console I/O printf( ) Printing Characters Printing Numbers Displaying an Address The %n Specifier Format Modifiers The Minimum Field Width Specifier The Precision Specifier Justifying Output Handling Other Data Types The * and # Modifiers scanf( ) Format Specifiers Inputting Numbers Inputting Unsigned Integers Reading Individual Characters Using scanf( ) Reading Strings Inputting an Address The %n Specifier Using a Scanset Discarding Unwanted White Space Non-White-Space Characters in the Control String You Must Pass scanf( ) Addresses Format Modifiers Suppressing Input

    Chapter-9 File I/O

    C Versus C++ File I/O Streams and Files Streams Text Streams Binary Streams Files File System Basics The File Pointer Opening a File Closing a File Writing a Character Reading a Character Using fopen( ), getc( ), putc( ), and fclose( ) Using feof( ) Working with Strings: fputs( ) and fgets( ) rewind( ) ferror( ) Erasing Files Flushing a Stream fread( ) and fwrite( ) Using fread( ) and fwrite( ) fseek( ) and Random-Access I/O fprintf( ) and fscanf( ) The Standard Streams The Console I/O Connection Using freopen( ) to Redirect the Standard Streams

    Chapter-10 The Preprocessor and Comments

    The Preprocessor #define Defining Function-like Macros #error #include Conditional Compilation Directives #if, #else, #elif, and #endif #ifdef and #ifndef #undef Using defined #line #pragma The # and ## Preprocessor Operators Predefined Macro Names C-Style Comments

    Part II - C++

    Chapter-11 An Overview of C++

    The Origins of C++ What Is Object-Oriented Programming? Encapsulation Polymorphism Inheritance Some C++ Fundamentals A Sample C++ Program A Closer Look at the I/O Operators Declaring Local Variables No Default to int The bool Data Type Old-Style vs Modern C++ The New C++ Headers Namespaces Working with an Old Compiler Introducing C++ Classes Function Overloading Operator Overloading Inheritance Constructors and Destructors The C++ Keywords The General Form of a C++ Program

    Chapter-12 Classes and Objects

    Classes Structures and Classes Are Related Unions and Classes Are Related Anonymous Unions Friend Functions Friend Classes Inline Functions Defining Inline Functions Within a Class Parameterized Constructors Constructors with One Parameter: A Special Case Static Class Members Static Data Members Static Member Functions When Constructors and Destructors Are Executed The Scope Resolution Operator Nested Classes Local Classes Passing Objects to Functions Returning Objects Object Assignment

    Chapter-13 Arrays, Pointers, References, and the Dynamic Allocation Operators

    Arrays of Objects Creating Initialized vs Uninitialized Arrays Pointers to Objects Type Checking C++ Pointers The this Pointer Pointers to Derived Types Pointers to Class Members References Reference Parameters Passing References to Objects Returning References Independent References References to Derived Types Restrictions to References A Matter of Style C++'s Dynamic Allocation Operators Initializing Allocated Memory Allocating Arrays Allocating Objects The nothrow Alternative The Placement Forms of new and delete

    Chapter-14 Function Overloading, Copy Constructors, and Default Arguments

    Function Overloading Overloading Constructor Functions Overloading a Constructor to Gain Flexibility Allowing Both Initialized and Uninitialized Objects Copy Constructors Finding the Address of an Overloaded Function The overload Anachronism Default Function Arguments Default Arguments vs Overloading Using Default Arguments Correctly Function Overloading and Ambiguity

    Chapter-15 Operator Overloading

    Creating a Member Operator Function Creating Prefix and Postfix Forms of the Increment and Decrement Operators Overloading the Shorthand Operators Operator Overloading Restrictions Operator Overloading Using a Friend Function Using a Friend to Overload ++ or – – Friend Operator Functions Add Flexibility Overloading new and delete Overloading new and delete for Arrays Overloading the nothrow Version of new and delete Overloading Some Special Operators Overloading [ ] Overloading ( ) Overloading –> Overloading the Comma Operator

    Chapter-16 Inheritance

    Base-Class Access Control Inheritance and protected Members Protected Base-Class Inheritance Inheriting Multiple Base Classes Constructors, Destructors, and Inheritance When Constructor and Destructor Functions Are Executed Passing Parameters to Base-Class Constructors Granting Access Virtual Base Classes

    Chapter-17 Virtual Functions and Polymorphism

    Virtual Functions Calling a Virtual Function Through a Base Class Reference The Virtual Attribute Is Inherited Virtual Functions Are Hierarchical Pure Virtual Functions Abstract Classes Using Virtual Functions Early vs Late Binding

    Chapter-18 Templates

    Generic Functions A Function with Two Generic Types Explicitly Overloading a Generic Function Overloading a Function Template Using Standard Parameters with Template Functions Generic Function Restrictions Applying Generic Functions A Generic Sort Compacting an Array Generic Classes An Example with Two Generic Data Types Applying Template Classes: A Generic Array Class Using Non-Type Arguments with Generic Classes Using Default Arguments with Template Classes Explicit Class Specializations The typename and export Keywords The Power of Templates

    Chapter-19 Exception Handling

    Exception Handling Fundamentals Catching Class Types Using Multiple catch Statements Handling Derived-Class Exceptions Exception Handling Options Catching All Exceptions Restricting Exceptions Rethrowing an Exception Understanding terminate( ) and unexpected( ) Setting the Terminate and Unexpected Handlers The uncaught_exception( ) Function The exception and bad_exception Classes Applying Exception Handling

    Chapter-20 The C++ I/O System Basics

    Old vs Modern C++ I/O C++ Streams The C++ Stream Classes C++'s Predefined Streams Formatted I/O Formatting Using the ios Members Setting the Format Flags Clearing Format Flags An Overloaded Form of setf( ) Examining the Formatting Flags Setting All Flags Using width( ), precision( ), and fill( ) Using Manipulators to Format I/O Overloading << and >> Creating Your Own Inserters Creating Your Own Extractors Creating Your Own Manipulator Functions

    Chapter-21 C++ File I/O

    and the File Classes Opening and Closing a File Reading and Writing Text Files Unformatted and Binary I/O Characters vs Bytes put( ) and get( ) read( ) and write( ) More get( ) Functions getline( ) Detecting EOF The ignore( ) Function peek( ) and putback( ) flush( ) Random Access Obtaining the Current File Position I/O Status Customized I/O and Files

    Chapter-22 Run-Time Type ID and the Casting Operators

    Run-Time Type Identification (RTTI) A Simple Application of Run-Time Type ID typeid Can Be Applied to Template Classes The Casting Operators dynamic_cast Replacing typeid with dynamic_cast Using dynamic_cast with Template Classes const_cast static_cast reinterpret_cast

    Chapter-23 Namespaces, Conversion Functions, and Other Advanced Topics

    Namespaces Namespace Fundamentals using Unnamed Namespaces Some Namespace Options The std Namespace Creating Conversion Functions const Member Functions and mutable Volatile Member Functions Explicit Constructors Using the asm Keyword Linkage Specification Array-Based I/O The Array-Based Classes Creating an Array-Based Output Stream Using an Array as Input Input/Output Array-Based Streams Using Dynamic Arrays Using Binary I/O with Array-Based Streams Summarizing the Differences Between C and C++

    Chapter-24 Introducing the Standard Template Library

    An Overview of the STL Containers Algorithms Iterators Other STL Elements The Container Classes General Theory of Operation Vectors Accessing a Vector Through an Iterator Inserting and Deleting Elements in a Vector Storing Class Objects in a Vector Lists Understanding end( ) push_front( ) vs push_back( ) Sort a List Merging One List with Another Storing Class Objects in a List Maps Storing Class Objects In a Map Algorithms Counting Removing and Replacing Elements Reversing a Sequence Transforming a Sequence Using Function Objects Unary and Binary Function Objects Using the Built-in Function Objects Creating a Function Object Using Binders The string Class Some string Member Functions Strings Are Containers Putting Strings into Other Containers Final Thoughts on the STL

    Part III - The Standard Function Library

    Chapter-25 The C-Based I/O Functions

    clearerr fclose feof ferror fflush fgetc fgetpos fgets fopen fprintf fputc fputs fread freopen fscanf fseek fsetpos ftell fwrite getc getchar gets perror printf putc putchar puts remove rename rewind scanf setbuf setvbuf sprintf sscanf tmpfile tmpnam ungetc vprintf, vfprintf, and vsprintf

    Chapter-26 The String and Character Functions

    isalnum isalpha iscntrl isdigit isgraph islower isprint ispunct isspace isupper isxdigit memchr memcmp memcpy memmove memset strcat strchr strcmp strcoll strcpy strcspn strerror strlen strncat strncmp strncpy strpbrk strrchr strspn strstr strtok strxfrm tolower toupper

    Chapter-27 The Mathematical Functions

    acos asin atan atan2 ceil cos cosh exp fabs floor fmod frexp ldexp log log10 modf pow sin sinh sqrt tan tanh

    Chapter-28 Time, Date, and Localization Functions

    asctime clock ctime difftime gmtime localeconv localtime mktime setlocale strftime time

    Chapter-29 The Dynamic Allocation Functions

    calloc free malloc realloc

    Chapter-30 Utility Functions

    abort abs assert atexit atof atoi atol bsearch div exit getenv labs ldiv longjmp mblen mbstowcs mbtowc qsort raise rand setjmp signal srand strtod strtol strtoul system va_arg, va_start, and va_end wcstombs wctomb

    Chapter-31 The Wide-Character Functions

    The Wide-Character Classification Functions The Wide-Character I/O Functions The Wide-Character String Functions Wide-Character String Conversion Functions Wide-Character Array Functions Multibyte/Wide-Character Conversion Functions

    Part IV - The Standard C++ Class Library

    Chapter-32 The Standard C++ I/O Classes

    The I/O Classes The I/O Headers The Format Flags and I/O Manipulators Several Data Types The streamsize and streamoff Types The streampos and wstreampos Types The pos_type and off_type Types The openmode Type The iostate Type The seekdir type The failure Class Overload << and >> Operators The General-Purpose I/O Functions bad clear eof exceptions fail fill flags flush fstream, ifstream, and ofstream gcount get getline good ignore open peek precision put putback rdstate read readsome seekg and seekp setf setstate str stringstream, istringstream, ostringstream sync_with_stdio tellg and tellp unsetf width write

    Chapter-33 The STL Container Classes

    The Container Classes bitset deque list map multimap multiset queue priority_queue set stack vector

    Chapter-34 The STL Algorithms

    adjacent_find binary_search copy copy_backward count count_if equal equal_range fill and fill_n find find_end find_first_of find_if for_each generate and generate_n includes inplace_merge iter_swap lexicographical_compare lower_bound make_heap max max_element merge min min_element mismatch next_permutation nth_element partial_sort partial_sort_copy partition pop_heap prev_permutation push_heap random_shuffle remove, remove_if, remove_copy, and remove_copy_if replace, replace_copy, replace_if, and replace_copy_if reverse and reverse_copy rotate and rotate_copy search search_n set_difference set_intersection set_symmetric_difference set_union sort sort_heap stable_partition stable_sort swap swap_ranges transform unique and unique_copy upper_bound

    Chapter-35 STL Iterators, Allocators, and Function Objects

    Iterators The Basic Iterator Types The Low-Level Iterator Classes The Predefined Iterators Two Iterator Functions Function Objects Function Objects Binders Negators Adaptors Allocators

    Chapter-36 The String Class

    The basic_string Class The char_traits Class

    Chapter-37 The Numeric Classes

    The complex Class The valarray Class The slice and gslice Classes The Helper Classes The Numeric Algorithms accumulate adjacent_difference inner_product partial_sum

    Chapter-38 Exception Handling and Miscellaneous Classes

    Exceptions auto_ptr The pair Class Localization Other Classes of Interest

    Part V - Applying C++

    Chapter-39 Integrating New Classes: A Custom String Class

    The StrType Class The Constructor and Destructor Functions I/O on Strings The Assignment Functions Concatenation Substring Subtraction The Relational Operators Miscellaneous String Functions The Entire StrType Class Using the StrType Class Creating and Integrating New Types in General A Challenge

    Chapter-40 An Object-Oriented Expression Parser

    Expressions Parsing Expressions: The Problem Parsing an Expression The Parser Class Dissecting an Expression A Simple Expression Parser Understanding the Parser Adding Variables to the Parser Syntax Checking in a Recursive-Descent Parser Building a Generic Parser Some Things to Try Index