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Physics Lecture Notes – Phys 395 Electronics Book

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  • Physics Lecture Notes – Phys 395 Electronics Book

    Table of Content

    Physics Lecture Notes - Phys 395 Electronics Book

    1 Direct Current Circuits 1.1 Basic Concepts 1.1.1 Current 1.1.2 Potential Difference 1.1.3 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 1.2 The Schematic Diagram 1.2.1 Electromotive Force (EMF) 1.2.2 Ground 1.3 Kirchoff’s Laws 1.3.1 Series and Parallel Combinations of Resistors 1.3.2 Voltage Divider 1.3.3 Current Divider 1.3.4 Branch Current Method 1.3.5 Loop Current Method 1.4 Equivalent Circuits 1.4.1 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 1.4.2 Determination of Thevenin and Norton Circuit Elements 1.5 Problems 2 Alternating Current Circuits 2.1 AC Circuit Elements 2.1.1 Capacitance 2.1.2 Inductance 2.2 Circuit Equations 2.2.1 RC Circuit 2.2.2 RL Circuit 2.2.3 LC Circuit 2.2.4 RCL Circuit 2.3 Sinusoidal Sources and Complex Impedance 2.3.1 Resistive Impedance 2.3.2 Capacitive Impedance 2.3.3 Inductive Impedance 2.3.4 Combined Impedances 2.4 Resonance and the Transfer Function 2.5 Four-Terminal Networks 2.6 Single-Term Approximations of H 2.7 Problems 3 Filter Circuits 3.1 Filters and Amplifiers 3.2 Log-Log Plots and Decibels 3.3 Passive RC Filters 3.3.1 Low-Pass Filter 3.3.2 Approximate Integrater 3.3.3 High-Pass Filter 3.3.4 Approximate Differentiator 3.4 Complex Frequencies and the s-Plane 3.4.1 Poles and Zeros of H 3.5 Sequential RC Filters 3.6 Passive RCL Filters 3.6.1 Series RCL Circuit 3.7 Amplifier Model 3.7.1 One-, Two- and Three-Pole Amplifier Models 3.7.2 Amplifier with Negative Feedback 3.8 Problems 4 Diode Circuits 4.1 Energy Levels 4.2 The PN Junction and the Diode Effect 4.2.1 Current in the Diode 4.2.2 The PN Diode as a Circuit Element 4.2.3 The Zener Diode 4.2.4 Light-Emitting Diodes 4.2.5 Light-Sensitive Diodes 4.3 Circuit Applications of Ordinary Diodes 4.3.1 Power Supplies 4.3.2 Rectification 4.3.3 Power Supply Filtering 4.3.4 Split Power Supply 4.3.5 Voltage Multiplier 4.3.6 Clamping 4.3.7 Clipping 4.3.8 Diode Gate 4.3.9 Diode Protection 4.4 Problems 5 Transistor Circuits 5.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors 5.1.1 Transistor Operation (NPN) 5.1.2 Basic Circuit Configurations 5.1.3 Small-Signal Models 5.1.4 Ideal and Perfect Bipolar Transistor Models 5.1.5 Transconductance Model 5.2 The Common Emitter Amplifier 5.2.1 DC Biasing 5.2.2 Approximate AC Model 5.2.3 The Basic CE Amplifier 5.2.4 CE Amplifier with Emitter Resistor 5.3 The Common Collector Amplifier 5.4 The Common Base Amplifier 5.5 The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) 5.5.1 Principles of Operation 5.5.2 Small-Signal AC Model 5.6 JFET Common Source Amplifier 5.7 JFET Common Drain Amplifier 5.8 The Insulated-Gate Field Effect Transistor 5.9 Power MOSFET Circuits 5.10 Multiple Transistor Circuits 5.10.1 Coupling Between Single Transistor Stages 5.10.2 Darlington and Sziklai Connections 5.11 Problems 6 Operational Amplifiers 6.1 Open-Loop Amplifiers 6.2 Ideal Amplifier Approximation 6.2.1 Non-inverting Amplifiers 6.2.2 Inverting Amplifiers 6.2.3 Mathematical Operations 6.2.4 Active Filters 6.2.5 General Feedback Elements 6.2.6 Differential Amplifiers 6.3 Analysis Using Finite Open-Loop Gain 6.3.1 Output Impedance 6.3.2 Input Impedance 6.3.3 Voltage and Current Offsets 6.3.4 Current Limiting and Slew Rate 6.4 Problems 7 Digital Circuits 7.1 Number Systems 7.1.1 Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers 7.1.2 Number Representation 7.2 Boolean Algebra 7.3 Logic Gates 7.4 Combinational Logic 7.4.1 Combinational Logic Design Using Truth Tables 7.4.2 The AND-OR Gate 7.4.3 Exclusive-OR Gate 7.4.4 Timing Diagrams 7.4.5 Signal Race 7.4.6 Half and Full Adders 7.5 Multiplexers and Decoders 7.6 Schmitt Trigger 7.7 The Data Bus 7.8 Two-State Storage Elements 7.9 Latches and Un-Clocked Flip-Flops 7.9.1 Latches 7.9.2 RS and RS Flip-Flops 7.10 Clocked Flip-Flops 7.10.1 Clocked RS Flip-Flop 7.10.2 D Flip-Flop 7.10.3 JK Flip-Flop 7.11 Dynamically Clocked Flip-Flops 7.11.1 Master/Slave or Pulse Triggering 7.11.2 Edge Triggering 7.12 One-Shots 7.13 Registers 7.13.1 Data Registers 7.13.2 Shift Registers 7.13.3 Counters 7.13.4 Divide-by-N Counters 7.14 Problems 8 Data Acquisition and Process Control 8.1 Transducers 8.2 Signal Conditioning Circuits 8.2.1 De-bouncing the Mechanical Switch 8.2.2 Op Amps for Gain, Offset and Function Modification 8.2.3 Sample-and-Hold Amplifiers 8.2.4 Gated Charge-to-Voltage Amplifier 8.2.5 Comparator 8.3 Oscillators 8.3.1 Application to Interval Timers 8.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion 8.4.1 Current Summing and IC Devices 8.4.2 DAC Limitations 8.5 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 8.5.1 Parallel-Encoding ADC (flash ADC) 8.5.2 Successive-Approximation ADC 8.5.3 Dual-Slope ADC 8.6 Time-to-Digital Conversion 8.7 Problems 9 Computers and Device Interconnection 9.1 Elements of the Microcomputer 9.1.1 Microprocessor and Microcomputer 9.1.2 Functional Elements of the Computer 9.1.3 Mechanical Arrangement 9.1.4 Addressing Devices on the Bus 9.1.5 Control of the Bus 9.1.6 Clock Lines 9.1.7 Random Access Memory 9.1.8 Read-Only Memory 9.1.9 I/O Ports 9.1.10 Interrupts 9.2 8-, 16-, or 32-Bit Busses