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Introduction to Electric Circuits Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume IV – Digital Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume IV – Digital Book

    1 NUMERATION SYSTEMS

    1.1 Numbers and symbols 1.2 Systems of numeration 1.3 Decimal versus binary numeration 1.4 Octal and hexadecimal numeration 1.5 Octal and hexadecimal to decimal conversion 1.6 Conversion from decimal numeration

    2 BINARY ARITHMETIC

    2.1 Numbers versus numeration 2.2 Binary addition 2.3 Negative binary numbers 2.4 Subtraction 2.5 Overflow 2.6 Bit groupings

    3 LOGIC GATES

    3.1 Digital signals and gates 3.2 The NOT gate 3.3 The "bufier" gate 3.4 Multiple-input gates 3.5 TTL NAND and AND gates 3.6 TTL NOR and OR gates 3.7 CMOS gate circuitry 3.8 Special-output gates 3.9 Gate universality 3.10 Logic signal voltage levels 3.11 DIP gate packaging 3.12 Contributors

    4 SWITCHES

    4.1 Switch types 4.2 Switch contact design 4.3 Contact "normal" state and make/break sequence 4.4 Contact "bounce"

    5 ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS

    5.1 Relay construction 5.2 Contactors 5.3 Time-delay relays 5.4 Protective relays 5.5 Solid-state relays

    6 LADDER LOGIC

    6.1 "Ladder" diagrams 6.2 Digital logic functions 6.3 Permissive and interlock circuits 6.4 Motor control circuits 6.5 Fail-safe design 6.6 Programmable logic controllers 6.7 Contributors

    7 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

    7.1 Introduction 7.2 Boolean arithmetic 7.3 Boolean algebraic identities 7.4 Boolean algebraic properties 7.5 Boolean rules for simpliflcation 7.6 Circuit simpliflcation examples 7.7 The Exclusive-OR function 7.8 DeMorgan’s Theorems 7.9 Converting truth tables into Boolean expressions

    8 KARNAUGH MAPPING

    8.1 Introduction 8.2 Venn diagrams and sets 8.3 Boolean Relationships on Venn Diagrams 8.4 Making a Venn diagram look like a Karnaugh map 8.5 Karnaugh maps, truth tables, and Boolean expressions 8.6 Logic simpliflcation with Karnaugh maps 8.7 Larger 4-variable Karnaugh maps 8.8 Minterm vs maxterm solution 8.9 § (sum) and ƒ (product) notation 8.10 Don’t care cells in the Karnaugh map 8.11 Larger 5 & 6-variable Karnaugh maps

    9 COMBINATIONAL LOGIC FUNCTIONS

    9.1 Introduction 9.2 A Half-Adder 9.3 A Full-Adder 9.4 Decoder 9.5 Encoder 9.6 Demultiplexers 9.7 Multiplexers 9.8 Using multiple combinational circuits

    10 MULTIVIBRATORS

    10.1 Digital logic with feedback 10.2 The S-R latch 10.3 The gated S-R latch 10.4 The D latch 10.5 Edge-triggered latches: Flip-Flops 10.6 The J-K flip-flop 10.7 Asynchronous flip-flop inputs 10.8 Monostable multivibrators

    11 COUNTERS

    11.1 Binary count sequence 11.2 Asynchronous counters 11.3 Synchronous counters 11.4 Counter modulus

    12 SHIFT REGISTERS

    12.1 Introduction 12.2 shift register, serial-in/serial-out shift 12.3 shift register, parallel-in, serial-out 12.4 Serial-in, parallel-out shift register 12.5 Parallel-in, parallel-out, universal shift register 12.6 Ring counters 12.7 references

    13 DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERSION

    13.1 Introduction 13.2 The R/2nR DAC 13.3 The R/2R DAC 13.4 Flash ADC 13.5 Digital ramp ADC 13.6 Successive approximation ADC 13.7 Tracking ADC 13.8 Slope (integrating) ADC 13.9 Delta-Sigma (¢§) ADC 13.10Practical considerations of ADC circuits

    14 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

    14.1 Introduction 14.2 Networks and busses 14.3 Data flow 14.4 Electrical signal types 14.5 Optical data communication 14.6 Network topology 14.7 Network protocols 14.8 Practical considerations

    15 DIGITAL STORAGE (MEMORY)

    15.1 Why digital? 15.2 Digital memory terms and concepts 15.3 Modern nonmechanical memory 15.4 Historical, nonmechanical memory technologies 15.5 Read-only memory 15.6 Memory with moving parts: "Drives"

    16 PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL COMPUTING

    16.1 A binary adder 16.2 Look-up tables 16.3 Finite-state machines 16.4 Microprocessors 16.5 Microprocessor programming

    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume V – Reference Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume V – Reference Book

    1 USEFUL EQUATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

    1.1 DC circuit equations and laws 1.2 Series circuit rules 1.3 Parallel circuit rules 1.4 Series and parallel component equivalent values 1.5 Capacitor sizing equation 1.6 Inductor sizing equation 1.7 Time constant equations 1.8 AC circuit equations 1.9 Decibels 1.10 Metric prefixes and unit conversions 1.11 Data 1.12 Contributors

    2 COLOR CODES

    2.1 Resistor Color Codes 2.2 Wiring Color Codes Bibliography

    3 CONDUCTOR AND INSULATOR TABLES

    3.1 Copper wire gage table 3.2 Copper wire ampacity table 3.3 Coefficients of specific resistance 3.4 Temperature coefficients of resistance 3.5 Critical temperatures for superconductors 3.6 Dielectric strengths for insulators 3.7 Data

    4 ALGEBRA REFERENCE

    4.1 Basic identities 4.2 Arithmetic properties 4.3 Properties of exponents 4.4 Radicals 4.5 Important constants 4.6 Logarithms 4.7 Factoring equivalencies 4.8 The quadratic formula 4.9 Sequences 4.10 Factorials 4.11 Solving simultaneous equations 4.12 Contributors

    5 TRIGONOMETRY REFERENCE

    5.1 Right triangle trigonometry 5.2 Non-right triangle trigonometry 5.3 Trigonometric equivalencies 5.4 Hyperbolic functions 5.5 Contributors

    6 CALCULUS REFERENCE

    6.1 Rules for limits 6.2 Derivative of a constant 6.3 Common derivatives 6.4 Derivatives of power functions of e 6.5 Trigonometric derivatives 6.6 Rules for derivatives 6.7 The antiderivative (Indefinite integral) 6.8 Common antiderivatives 6.9 Antiderivatives of power functions of e 6.10 Rules for antiderivatives 6.11 Definite integrals and the fundamental theorem of calculus 6.12 Differential equations

    7 USING THE SPICE CIRCUIT SIMULATION PROGRAM

    7.1 Introduction 7.2 History of SPICE 7.3 Fundamentals of SPICE programming 7.4 The command-line interface 7.5 Circuit components 7.6 Analysis options 7.7 Quirks 7.8 Example circuits and netlists

    8 TROUBLESHOOTING – THEORY AND PRACTICE

    8.2 Questions to ask before proceeding 8.3 General troubleshooting tips 8.4 Specific troubleshooting techniques 8.5 Likely failures in proven systems 8.6 Likely failures in unproven systems 8.7 Potential pitfalls 8.8 Contributors

    9 CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS

    9.1 Wires and connections 9.2 Power sources 9.3 Resistors 9.4 Capacitors 9.5 Inductors 9.6 Mutual inductors 9.7 Switches, hand actuated 9.8 Switches, process actuated 9.9 Switches, electrically actuated (relays) 9.10 Connectors 9.11 Diodes 9.12 Transistors, bipolar 9.13 Transistors, junction field-effect (JFET) 9.14 Transistors, insulated-gate field-effect (IGFET or MOSFET) 9.15 Transistors, hybrid 9.16 Thyristors 9.17 Integrated circuits 9.18 Electron tubes

    10 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

    10.1 Table (landscape view)

    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume III – Semiconductors Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume III – Semiconductors Book

    1 AMPLIFIERS AND ACTIVE DEVICES

    1.1 From electric to electronic 1.2 Active versus passive devices 1.3 Amplifiers 1.4 Amplifier gain 1.5 Decibels 1.6 Absolute dB scales 1.7 Attenuators

    2 SOLID-STATE DEVICE THEORY

    2.1 Introduction 2.2 Quantum physics 2.3 Valence and Crystal structure 2.4 Band theory of solids 2.5 Electrons and “holes” 2.6 The P-N junction 2.7 Junction diodes 2.8 Bipolar junction transistors 2.9 Junction field-effect transistors 2.10 Insulated-gate field-effect transistors (MOSFET) 2.11 Thyristors 2.12 Semiconductor manufacturing techniques 2.13 Superconducting devices 2.14 Quantum devices 2.15 Semiconductor devices in SPICE

    3 DIODES AND RECTIFIERS

    3.1 Introduction 3.2 Meter check of a diode 3.3 Diode ratings 3.4 Rectifier circuits 3.5 Peak detector 3.6 Clipper circuits 3.7 Clamper circuits 3.8 Voltage multipliers 3.9 Inductor commutating circuits 3.10 Diode switching circuits 3.11 Zener diodes 3.12 Special-purpose diodes 3.13 Other diode technologies 3.14 SPICE models

    4 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

    4.1 Introduction 4.2 The transistor as a switch 4.3 Meter check of a transistor 4.4 Active mode operation 4.5 The common-emitter amplifier 4.6 The common-collector amplifier 4.7 The common-base amplifier 4.8 The cascode amplifier 4.9 Biasing techniques 4.10 Biasing calculations 4.11 Input and output coupling 4.12 Feedback 4.13 Amplifier impedances 4.14 Current mirrors 4.15 Transistor ratings and packages 4.16 BJT quirks

    5 JUNCTION FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS

    5.1 Introduction 5.2 The transistor as a switch 5.3 Meter check of a transistor 5.4 Active-mode operation

    6 INSULATED-GATE FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS

    6.1 Introduction 6.2 Depletion-type IGFETs 6.12 IGBTs

    7 THYRISTORS

    7.1 Hysteresis 7.2 Gas discharge tubes 7.3 The Shockley Diode 7.4 The DIAC 7.5 The Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 7.6 The TRIAC 7.7 Optothyristors 7.8 The Unijunction Transistor (UJT) 7.9 The Silicon-Controlled Switch (SCS) 7.10 Field-effect-controlled thyristors

    8 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

    8.1 Introduction 8.2 Single-ended and differential amplifiers 8.3 The ”operational” amplifier 8.4 Negative feedback 8.5 Divided feedback 8.6 An analogy for divided feedback 8.7 Voltage-to-current signal conversion 8.8 Averager and summer circuits 8.9 Building a differential amplifier 8.10 The instrumentation amplifier 8.11 Differentiator and integrator circuits 8.12 Positive feedback 8.13 Practical considerations 8.14 Operational amplifier models 8.15 Data

    9 PRACTICAL ANALOG SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITS

    9.1 ElectroStatic Discharge 9.2 Power supply circuits – INCOMPLETE 9.4 Oscillator circuits – INCOMPLETE 9.6 Radio circuits – INCOMPLETE 9.7 Computational circuits 9.8 Measurement circuits – INCOMPLETE

    10 ACTIVE FILTERS

    11 DC MOTOR DRIVES

    11.1 Pulse Width Modulation

    12 INVERTERS AND AC MOTOR DRIVES

    13 ELECTRON TUBES

    13.1 Introduction 13.2 Early tube history 13.3 The triode 13.4 The tetrode 13.5 Beam power tubes 13.6 The pentode 13.7 Combination tubes 13.8 Tube parameters 13.9 Ionization (gas-filled) tubes 13.10Display tubes 13.11Microwave tubes 13.12Tubes versus Semiconductors

    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume II – AC Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume II – AC Book

    1 BASIC AC THEORY

    1.1 What is alternating current (AC)? 1.2 AC waveforms 1.3 Measurements of AC magnitude 1.4 Simple AC circuit calculations 1.5 AC phase 1.6 Principles of radio 1.7 Contributors

    2 COMPLEX NUMBERS

    2.1 Introduction 2.2 Vectors and AC waveforms 2.3 Simple vector addition 2.4 Complex vector addition 2.5 Polar and rectangular notation 2.6 Complex number arithmetic 2.7 More on AC \polarity" 2.8 Some examples with AC circuits 2.9 Contributors

    3 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE { INDUCTIVE

    3.1 AC resistor circuits 3.2 AC inductor circuits 3.3 Series resistor-inductor circuits 3.4 Parallel resistor-inductor circuits 3.5 Inductor quirks 3.6 More on the \skin efiect" 3.7 Contributors

    4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE { CAPACITIVE

    4.1 AC resistor circuits 4.2 AC capacitor circuits 4.3 Series resistor-capacitor circuits 4.4 Parallel resistor-capacitor circuits 4.5 Capacitor quirks 4.6 Contributors

    5 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE { R, L, AND C

    5.1 Review of R, X, and Z 5.2 Series R, L, and C 5.3 Parallel R, L, and C 5.4 Series-parallel R, L, and C 5.5 Susceptance and Admittance 5.6 Summary 5.7 Contributors

    6 RESONANCE

    6.1 An electric pendulum 6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit) resonance 6.3 Simple series resonance 6.4 Applications of resonance 6.5 Resonance in series-parallel circuits 6.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant circuit 6.7 Contributors

    7 MIXED-FREQUENCY AC SIGNALS

    7.1 Introduction 7.2 Square wave signals 7.3 Other waveshapes 7.4 More on spectrum analysis 7.5 Circuit efiects 7.6 Contributors

    8 FILTERS

    8.1 What is a fllter? 8.2 Low-pass fllters 8.3 High-pass fllters 8.4 Band-pass fllters 8.5 Band-stop fllters 8.6 Resonant fllters 8.7 Summary 8.8 Contributors

    9 TRANSFORMERS

    9.1 Mutual inductance and basic operation 9.2 Step-up and step-down transformers 9.3 Electrical isolation 9.4 Phasing 9.5 Winding conflgurations 9.6 Voltage regulation 9.7 Special transformers and applications 9.8 Practical considerations 9.9 Contributors

    10 POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS

    10.1 Single-phase power systems 10.2 Three-phase power systems 10.3 Phase rotation 10.4 Polyphase motor design 10.5 Three-phase Y and ¢ conflgurations 10.6 Three-phase transformer circuits 10.7 Harmonics in polyphase power systems 10.8 Harmonic phase sequences 10.9 Contributors

    11 POWER FACTOR

    11.1 Power in resistive and reactive AC circuits 11.2 True, Reactive, and Apparent power 11.3 Calculating power factor 11.4 Practical power factor correction 11.5 Contributors

    12 AC METERING CIRCUITS

    12.1 AC voltmeters and ammeters 12.2 Frequency and phase measurement 12.3 Power measurement 12.4 Power quality measurement 12.5 AC bridge circuits 12.6 AC instrumentation transducers 12.7 Contributors

    13 AC MOTORS

    13.1 Introduction 13.2 Synchronous Motors 13.3 Synchronous condenser 13.4 Reluctance motor 13.5 Stepper motors 13.6 Brushless DC motor 13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors 13.8 Wound rotor induction motors 13.9 Single-phase induction motors 13.10 Other specialized motors 13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors 13.12 AC commutator motors

    14 TRANSMISSION LINES

    14.1 A 50-ohm cable? 14.2 Circuits and the speed of light 14.3 Characteristic impedance 14.4 Finite-length transmission lines 14.5 \Long" and \short" transmission lines 14.6 Standing waves and resonance 14.7 Impedance transformation 14.8 Waveguides

    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume VI – Experiments Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume VI – Experiments Book

    1 INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Electronics as science 1.2 Setting up a home lab 1.3 Contributors

    2 BASIC CONCEPTS AND TEST EQUIPMENT

    2.1 Voltmeter usage 2.2 Ohmmeter usage 2.3 A very simple circuit 2.4 Ammeter usage 2.5 Ohm’s Law 2.6 Nonlinear resistance 2.7 Power dissipation 2.8 Circuit with a switch 2.9 Electromagnetism 2.10 Electromagnetic induction

    3 DC CIRCUITS

    3.1 Introduction 3.2 Series batteries 3.3 Parallel batteries 3.4 Voltage divider 3.5 Current divider 3.6 Potentiometer as a voltage divider 3.7 Potentiometer as a rheostat 3.8 Precision potentiometer 3.9 Rheostat range limiting 3.10 Thermoelectricity 3.11 Make your own multimeter 3.12 Sensitive voltage detector 3.13 Potentiometric voltmeter 3.14 4-wire resistance measurement 3.15 A very simple computer 3.16 Potato battery 3.17 Capacitor charging and discharging 3.18 Rate-of-change indicator

    4 AC CIRCUITS

    4.1 Introduction 4.2 Transformer – power supply 4.3 Build a transformer 4.4 Variable inductor 4.5 Sensitive audio detector 4.6 Sensing AC magnetic fields 4.7 Sensing AC electric fields 4.8 Automotive alternator 4.9 Induction motor 4.10 Induction motor, large 4.11 Phase shift 4.12 Sound cancellation 4.13 Musical keyboard as a signal generator 4.14 PC Oscilloscope 4.15 Waveform analysis 4.16 Inductor-capacitor ”tank” circuit 4.17 Signal coupling

    5 DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITS

    5.1 Introduction 5.2 Commutating diode 5.3 Half-wave rectifier 5.4 Full-wave center-tap rectifier 5.5 Full-wave bridge rectifier 5.6 Rectifier/filter circuit 5.7 Voltage regulator 5.8 Transistor as a switch 5.9 Static electricity sensor 5.10 Pulsed-light sensor 5.11 Voltage follower 5.12 Common-emitter amplifier 5.13 Multi-stage amplifier 5.14 Current mirror 5.15 JFET current regulator 5.16 Differential amplifier 5.17 Simple op-amp 5.18 Audio oscillator 5.19 Vacuum tube audio amplifier

    6 ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    6.1 Introduction 6.2 Voltage comparator 6.3 Precision voltage follower 6.4 Noninverting amplifier 6.5 High-impedance voltmeter 6.6 Integrator 6.7 555 audio oscillator 6.8 555 ramp generator 6.9 PWM power controller 6.10 Class B audio amplifier

    7 DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    7.1 Introduction 7.2 Basic gate function 7.3 NOR gate S-R latch 7.4 NAND gate S-R enabled latch 7.5 NAND gate S-R flip-flop 7.6 LED sequencer 7.7 Simple combination lock 7.8 3-bit binary counter 7.9 7-segment display

    8 555 TIMER CIRCUITS

    8.1 The 555 IC 8.2 555 Schmitt Trigger 8.3 555 HYSTERETIC OSCILLATOR 8.4 555 MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 8.5 CMOS 555 LONG DURATION MINIMUM PARTS RED LED FLASHER 8.6 CMOS 555 LONG DURATION BLUE LED FLASHER 8.7 CMOS 555 LONG DURATION FLYBACK LED FLASHER 8.8 HOW TO MAKE AN INDUCTOR 8.9 CMOS 555 LONG DURATION RED LED FLASHER

    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume I – DC Book

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    Lessons In Electric Circuits Volume I – DC Book

    1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICITY

    1.1 Static electricity 1.2 Conductors, insulators, and electron flow 1.3 Electric circuits 1.4 Voltage and current 1.5 Resistance 1.6 Voltage and current in a practical circuit 1.7 Conventional versus electron flow 1.8 Contributors

    2 OHM’s LAW

    2.1 How voltage, current, and resistance relate 2.2 An analogy for Ohm’s Law 2.3 Power in electric circuits 2.4 Calculating electric power 2.5 Resistors 2.6 Nonlinear conduction 2.7 Circuit wiring 2.8 Polarity of voltage drops 2.9 Computer simulation of electric circuits 2.10 Contributors

    3 ELECTRICAL SAFETY

    3.1 The importance of electrical safety 3.2 Physiological effects of electricity 3.3 Shock current path 3.4 Ohm’s Law (again!) 3.5 Safe practices 3.6 Emergency response 3.7 Common sources of hazard 3.8 Safe circuit design 3.9 Safe meter usage 3.10 Electric shock data 3.11 Contributors

    4 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION AND METRIC PREFIXES

    4.1 Scientific notation 4.2 Arithmetic with scientific notation 4.3 Metric notation 4.4 Metric prefix conversions 4.5 Hand calculator use 4.6 Scientific notation in SPICE 4.7 Contributors

    5 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

    5.1 What are ”series” and ”parallel” circuits? 5.2 Simple series circuits 5.3 Simple parallel circuits 5.4 Conductance 5.5 Power calculations 5.6 Correct use of Ohm’s Law 5.7 Component failure analysis 5.8 Building simple resistor circuits 5.9 Contributors

    6 DIVIDER CIRCUITS AND KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS

    6.1 Voltage divider circuits 6.2 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) 6.3 Current divider circuits 6.4 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) 6.5 Contributors

    7 SERIES-PARALLEL COMBINATION CIRCUITS

    7.1 What is a series-parallel circuit? 7.2 Analysis technique 7.3 Re-drawing complex schematics 7.4 Component failure analysis 7.5 Building series-parallel resistor circuits 7.6 Contributors

    8 DC METERING CIRCUITS

    8.1 What is a meter? 8.2 Voltmeter design 8.3 Voltmeter impact on measured circuit 8.4 Ammeter design 8.5 Ammeter impact on measured circuit 8.6 Ohmmeter design 8.7 High voltage ohmmeters 8.8 Multimeters 8.9 Kelvin (4-wire) resistance measurement 8.10 Bridge circuits 8.11 Wattmeter design 8.12 Creating custom calibration resistances 8.13 Contributors

    9 ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION SIGNALS

    9.1 Analog and digital signals 9.2 Voltage signal systems 9.3 Current signal systems 9.4 Tachogenerators 9.5 Thermocouples 9.6 pH measurement 9.7 Strain gauges 9.8 Contributors

    10 DC NETWORK ANALYSIS

    10.1 What is network analysis? 10.2 Branch current method 10.3 Mesh current method 10.4 Node voltage method 10.5 Introduction to network theorems 10.6 Millman’s Theorem 10.7 Superposition Theorem 10.8 Thevenin’s Theorem 10.9 Norton’s Theorem 10.10Thevenin-Norton equivalencies 10.11Millman’s Theorem revisited 10.12Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 10.13∆-Y and Y-∆ conversions 10.14Contributors

    11 BATTERIES AND POWER SYSTEMS

    11.1 Electron activity in chemical reactions 11.2 Battery construction 11.3 Battery ratings 11.4 Special-purpose batteries 11.5 Practical considerations 11.6 Contributors

    12 PHYSICS OF CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS

    12.1 Introduction 12.2 Conductor size 12.3 Conductor ampacity 12.4 Fuses 12.5 Specific resistance 12.6 Temperature coefficient of resistance 12.7 Superconductivity 12.8 Insulator breakdown voltage 12.9 Data 12.10Contributors

    13 CAPACITORS

    13.1 Electric fields and capacitance 13.2 Capacitors and calculus 13.3 Factors affecting capacitance 13.4 Series and parallel capacitors 13.5 Practical considerations 13.6 Contributors

    14 MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM

    14.1 Permanent magnets 14.2 Electromagnetism 14.3 Magnetic units of measurement 14.4 Permeability and saturation 14.5 Electromagnetic induction 14.6 Mutual inductance 14.7 Contributors

    15 INDUCTORS

    15.1 Magnetic fields and inductance 15.2 Inductors and calculus 15.3 Factors affecting inductance 15.4 Series and parallel inductors 15.5 Practical considerations 15.6 Contributors

    16 RC AND L/R TIME CONSTANTS

    16.1 Electrical transients 16.2 Capacitor transient response 16.3 Inductor transient response 16.4 Voltage and current calculations 16.5 Why L/R and not LR? 16.6 Complex voltage and current calculations 16.7 Complex circuits 16.8 Solving for unknown time

    Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 5th Edition Book

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    Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 5th Edition Book

    PART 1 DC Circuits Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Systems of Units 1.3 Charge and Current 1.4 Voltage 1.5 Power and Energy 1.6 Circuit Elements 1.7 †Applications 1.7.1 TV Picture Tube 1.7.2 Electricity Bills 1.8 †Problem Solving 1.9 Summary Chapter 2 Basic Laws 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Ohm’s Law 2.3 †Nodes, Branches, and Loops 2.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws 2.5 Series Resistors and Voltage Division 2.6 Parallel Resistors and Current Division 2.7 †Wye-Delta Transformations 2.8 †Applications 2.8.1 Lighting Systems 2.8.2 Design of DC Meters 2.9 Summary Chapter 3 Methods of Analysis 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Nodal Analysis 3.3 Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources 3.4 Mesh Analysis 3.5 Mesh Analysis with Current Sources 3.6 †Nodal and Mesh Analyses by Inspection 3.7 Nodal Versus Mesh Analysis 3.8 Circuit Analysis with PSpice 3.9 †Applications: DC Transistor Circuits 3.10 Summary Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Linearity Property 4.3 Superposition 4.4 Source Transformation 4.5 Thevenin’s Theorem 4.6 Norton’s Theorem 4.7 †Derivations of Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 4.8 Maximum Power Transfer 4.9 Verifying Circuit Theorems with PSpice 4.10 †Applications 4.10.1 Source Modeling 4.10.2 Resistance Measurement 4.11 Summary Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Operational Amplifiers 5.3 Ideal Op Amp 5.4 Inverting Amplifier 5.5 Noninverting Amplifier 5.6 Summing Amplifier 5.7 Difference Amplifier 5.8 Cascaded Op Amp Circuits 5.9 Op Amp Circuit Analysis with PSpice 5.10 †Applications 5.10.1 Digital-to-Analog Converter 5.10.2 Instrumentation Amplifiers 5.11 Summary Chapter 6 Capacitors and Inductors 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Capacitors 6.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors 6.4 Inductors 6.5 Series and Parallel Inductors 6.6 †Applications 6.6.1 Integrator 6.6.2 Differentiator 6.6.3 Analog Computer 6.7 Summary Chapter 7 First-Order Circuits 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Source-Free RC Circuit 7.3 The Source-Free RL Circuit 7.4 Singularity Functions 7.5 Step Response of an RC Circuit 7.6 Step Response of an RL Circuit 7.7 †First-Order Op Amp Circuits 7.8 Transient Analysis with PSpice 7.9 †Applications 7.9.1 Delay Circuits 7.9.2 Photoflash Unit 7.9.3 Relay Circuits 7.9.4 Automobile Ignition Circuit 7.10 Summary Chapter 8 Second-Order Circuits 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values 8.3 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit 8.4 The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit 8.5 Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit 8.6 Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 8.7 General Second-Order Circuits 8.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits 8.9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits 8.10 †Duality 8.11 †Applications 8.11.1 Automobile Ignition System 8.11.2 Smoothing Circuits 8.12 Summary

    Handbook For Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Book

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    Table of Content

    Handbook For Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Book

    1 Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Types of Solar PV System 1.3 Solar PV Technology • Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies • Conversion Effciency • Effects of Temperature 1.4 Technical Information 2 Solar PV Systems on a Building 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Installation Angle 2.3 Avoid Shading PV Modules 2.4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules 2.5 Solar PV Output Profle 2.6 Solar PV Yield 2.7 Cost of a Solar PV System 3 Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Getting Started • Get an Experienced and Licensed Contractor • Choosing Between Bids • Solar PV System Warranty • Regular Maintenance • Other Relevant Matters 4 Solar PV System Installation Requirements 4.1 Electrical Installation Licence 4.2 Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements 4.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence 4.4 Conservation and Development Control Requirements 4.5 Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control 4.6 Structural Safety and Lightning Protection • Structural Safety • Lightning Protection 4.7 Connection to the Power Grid 4.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid 4.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity 4.10 Design and Installation Checklist 5 Operations and Maintenance 5.1 Operations of Solar PV Systems 5.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works APPendIx A exAMPleS Of SOlAR PV SySteM On BuIldIngS In SIngAPORe A.1 ZERO ENERGY BUILDING @ BCA ACADEMY A.2 POH ERN SHIH (TEMPLE OF THANKSGIVING) A.3 313 SOMERSET CENTRAL A.4 SENTOSA COVE A.5 MARINA BARRAGE A.6 LONZA BIOLOGICS A.7 ZERO ENERGY HOUSE A.8 TAMPINES GRANDE A.9 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT SERANGOON NORTH PRECINCT A.10 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT WELLINGTON CIRCLE PRECINCT APPendIx B B.1 ENGAGING A LICENSED ELECTRICAL WORKER APPendIx C C.1 CONTACT INFORMATION APPendIx d – InCentIVeS fOR SOlAR PV SySteM D.1 SOLAR CAPABILITY SCHEME (SCS) D.2 MARKET DEVELOPMENT FUND (MDF) D.3 GREEN MARK SCHEME D.4 GREEN MARK GROSS FLOOR AREA (GM-GFA) INCENTIVE SCHEME D.5 $100 MILLION GREEN MARK INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR ExISTING BUILDINGS (GMIS-EB) D.6 ENHANCED $20 MILLION GREEN MARK INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR NEW BUILDINGS (GMIS-NB)

    Electrical Circuits Simulation Lab – Laboratory Manual Book

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