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Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

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  • Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

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    Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

    Learning Objectives Overview: What is Spectrum Analysis Types of Tests Made Frequency Versus Time Domain Fourier Spectrum Analyzer Swept-Tuned Spectrum Analyzer Overview: Spectrum analysis Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram The Mixer: Key to a Wide Frequency Range Intermediate Frequency (IF) Filter Detector Video Filter Local Oscillator and Sweep Generator Input Attenuator and IF Gain Circuits What Spectrum Analyzer Specifications are Important Frequency Range Getting the Frequency Range You Need Frequency and Amplitude Accuracy Signal Resolution IF Filter Bandwidth Resolving Two Equal-level Signals Resolving Two Unequal-level Signals Resolving Two Unequal-level Signals Residual FM Noise Sidebands (Phase Noise) Sweep Rate Analog versus Digital Resolution Bandwidths Rules to Analyze By: Use the Analyzer’s Automatic Settings Whenever Possible Sensitivity and Displayed Average Noise Level RF Input Attenuator Effects IF Filter (Resolution Bandwidth) Effects Video Bandwidth Effects Sensitivity - the smallest signal that can be measured Rules to Analyze By: Getting the Best Sensitivity Requires Three Settings Where is Distortion Generated Most Influential Distortion is the Second and Third Order Distortion Increases as a Function of the Fundamentals Power How Distortion Amplitudes Change Plotting Distortion as a Function of Mixer Level Rules to Analyze by: A Simple Distortion Test Dynamic Range -Optimum Amplitude Difference Between Large and Small Signals Displayed Noise Limits Dynamic Range Dynamic Range as a Function of Distortion and Noise Level Close-in Dynamic Range Limited by Noise Sidebands Rules to Analyze by: Determining Dynamic Range Dynamic Range is Defined by Your Application Summary RF spectrum analyzer Agilent Spectrum Analyzer Product Families - Swept Tuned Agilent Vector Signal Analyzer Product Families

    Make Electronics Book Learning by Discovery

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  • Make Electronics Book Learning by Discovery

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    Make Electronics Book Learning by Discovery

    1. Experiencing Electricity Shopping List: Experiments 1 Through 5 Experiment 1: Taste the Power! Experiment 2: Let’s Abuse a Battery! Experiment 3: Your First Circuit Experiment 4: Varying the Voltage Experiment 5: Let’s Make a Battery 2. Switching Basics and More Shopping List: Experiments 6 Through 11 Experiment 6: Very Simple Switching Experiment 7: Relay-Driven LEDs Experiment 8: A Relay Oscillator Experiment 9: Time and Capacitors Experiment 10: Transistor Switching Experiment 11: A Modular Project 3. Getting Somewhat More Serious Shopping List: Experiments 12 Through 15. Experiment 12: Joining Two Wires Together Experiment 13: Broil an LED. Experiment 14: A Pulsing Glow Experiment 15: Intrusion Alarm Revisited. 4. Chips, Ahoy! Shopping List: Experiments 16 Through 24. Experiment 16: Emitting a Pulse Experiment 17: Set Your Tone Experiment 18: Reaction Timer Experiment 19: Learning Logic Experiment 20: A Powerful Combination Experiment 21: Race to Place Experiment 22: Flipping and Bouncing Experiment 23: Nice Dice Experiment 24: Intrusion Alarm Completed 5. What Next? Shopping List: Experiments 25 Through 36. Customizing Your Work Area Reference Sources Experiment 25: Magnetism Experiment 26: Tabletop Power Generation Experiment 27: Loudspeaker Destruction Experiment 28: Making a Coil React Experiment 29: Filtering Frequencies Experiment 30: Fuzz Experiment 31: One Radio, No Solder,No Power Experiment 32: A Little Robot Cart Experiment 33: Moving in Steps Experiment 34: Hardware Meets Software Experiment 35: Checking the Real World Experiment 36: The Lock, Revisited In Closing

    Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Book

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    Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics Third Edition Book

    Part 1 - Direct current Basic physical concepts Atoms Protons, neutrons, and the atomic number Isotopes and atomic weights Electrons Ions Compounds Molecules Conductors Insulators Resistors Semiconductors Current Static electricity Electromotive force Nonelectrical energy Electrical units The volt Current flow The ampere Resistance and the ohm Conductance and the siemens Power and the watt Energy and the watt hour Other energy units ac Waves and the hertz Rectification and fluctuating direct current Safety considerations in electrical work Magnetism Magnetic units Measuring devices Electromagnetic deflection Electrostatic deflection Thermal heating Ammeters Voltmeters Ohmmeters Multimeters FET and vacuum-tube voltmeters Wattmeters Watt-hour meters Digital readout meters Frequency counters Other specialized meter types Basic DC circuits Schematic symbols Schematic diagrams Wiring diagrams Voltage/current/resistance circuit Ohm’s Law Current calculations Voltage calculations Resistance calculations Power calculations Resistances in series Resistances in parallel Division of power Resistances in series-parallel Resistive loads in general Direct Current Circuit Analysis Current through series resistances Voltages across series resistances Voltage across parallel resistances Currents through parallel resistances Power distribution in series circuits Power distribution in parallel circuits Kirchhoff’s first law Kirchhoff’s second law Voltage divider networks Resistors Purpose of the resistor The carbon-composition resistor The wirewound resistor Film type resistors Integrated-circuit resistors The potentiometer The decibel The rheostat Resistor values Tolerance Power rating Temperature compensation The color code Cells and batteries Kinetic and potential energy Electrochemical energy Primary and secondary cells The Weston standard cell Storage capacity Common dime-store cells and batteries Miniature cells and batteries Lead-acid cells and batteries Nickel-cadmium cells and batteries Photovoltaic cells and batteries How large a battery? Magnetism The geomagnetic field Magnetic force Electric charge in motion Flux lines Magnetic polarity Dipoles and monopoles Magnetic field strength Permeability Retentivity Permanent magnets The solenoid The dc motor Magnetic data storage Part 2 Alternating current Alternating current basics Definition of alternating current Period and frequency The sine wave The square wave Sawtooth waves Complex and irregular waveforms Frequency spectrum Little bits of a cycle Phase difference Amplitude of alternating current Superimposed direct current The ac generator Why AC? Inductance The property of inductance Practical inductors The unit of inductance Inductors in series Inductors in parallel Interaction among inductors Effects of mutual inductance Air-core coils Powdered-iron and ferrite cores Permeability tuning Toroids Pot cores Filter chokes Inductors at audio frequency Inductors at radio frequency Transmission-line inductors Unwanted inductances Capacitance The property of capacitance Practical capacitors The unit of capacitance Capacitors in series Capacitors in parallel Dielectric materials Paper capacitors Mica capacitors Ceramic capacitors Plastic-film capacitors Electrolytic capcitors Tantalum capacitors Semiconductor capacitors Variable capacitors Tolerance Temperature coefficient Interelectrode capacitance Phase Instantaneous voltage and current Rate of change Sine waves as circular motion Degrees of phase Radians of phase Phase coincidence Phase opposition Leading phase Lagging phase Vector diagrams of phase relationships Inductive reactance Coils and direct current Coils and alternating current Reactance and frequency Points in the RL plane Vectors in the RL plane Current lags voltage Inductance and resistance How much lag? Capacitive reactance Capacitors and direct current Capacitors and alternating current Reactance and frequency Points in the RC plane Vectors in the RC plane Current leads voltage How much lead? Impedance and admittance Imaginary numbers Complex numbers The complex number plane The RX plane Vector representation of impedance Absolute-value impedance Characteristic impedance Conductance Susceptance Admittance The GB plane Vector representation of admittance Why all these different expressions? RLC circuit analysis Complex impedances in series Series RLC circuits Complex admittances in parallel Parallel GLC circuits Converting from admittance to impedance Putting it all together Reducing complicated RLC circuits Ohm’s law for ac circuits Power and resonance in ac circuits What is power? True power doesn’t travel Reactance does not consume power True power, VA power and reactive power Power factor Calculation of power factor How much of the power is true? Power transmission Series resonance Parallel resonance Calculating resonant frequency Resonant devices Transformers and impedance matching Principle of the transformer Turns ratio Transformer cores Transformer geometry The autotransformer Power transformers Audio-frequency transformers Isolation transformers Impedance-transfer ratio Radio-frequency transformers What about reactance? Test: Part 2 Part 3 Basic electronics Introduction to semiconductors The semiconductor revolution Semiconductor materials Doping Majority and minority charge carriers Electron flow Hole flow Behavior of a P-N junction How the junction works Junction capacitance Avalanche effect Some uses of diodes Rectification Detection Frequency multiplication Mixing Switching Voltage regulation Amplitude limiting Frequency control Oscillation and amplification Energy emission Photosensitive diodes Power supplies Parts of a power supply The power transformer The diode The half-wave rectifier The full-wave, center-tap rectifier The bridge rectifier The voltage doubler The filter Voltage regulation Surge current Transient suppression Fuses and breakers Personal safety The bipolar transistor NPN versus PNP NPN biasing PNP biasing Biasing for current amplification Static current amplification Dynamic current amplification Overdrive Gain versus frequency Common-emitter circuit Common-base circuit Common-collector circuit The field-effect transistor Principle of the JFET N-channel versus P-channel Depletion and pinchoff JFET biasing Voltage amplification Drain current versus drain voltage Transconductance The MOSFET Depletion mode versus enhancement mode Common-source circuit Common-gate circuit Common-drain circuit A note about notation Amplifiers The decibel Basic bipolar amplifier circuit Basic FET amplifier circuit The class-A amplifier The class-AB amplifier The class-B amplifier The class-C amplifier PA efficiency Drive and overdrive Audio amplification Coupling methods Radio-frequency amplification Oscillators Uses of oscillators Positive feedback Concept of the oscillator The Armstrong oscillator The Hartley circuit The Colpitts circuit The Clapp circuit Stability Crystal-controlled oscillators The voltage-controlled oscillator The PLL frequency synthesizer Diode oscillators Audio waveforms Audio oscillators IC oscillators Data transmission The carrier wave The Morse code Frequency-shift keying Amplitude modulation for voice Single sideband Frequency and phase modulation Pulse modulation Analog-to-digital conversion Image transmission The electromagnetic field Transmission media Data reception Radio wave propagation Receiver specifications Definition of detection Detection of AM signals Detection of CW signals Detection of FSK signals Detection of SSB signals Detection of FM signals Detection of PM signals Digital-to-analog conversion Digital signal processing The principle of signal mixing The product detector The superheterodyne A modulated-light receiver Integrated circuits and data storage media Boxes and cans Advantages of IC technology Limitations of IC technology Linear versus digital Types of linear ICs Bipolar digital ICs MOS digital ICs Component density IC memory Magnetic media Compact disks Electron tubes Vacuum versus gas-filled The diode tube The triode Extra grids Some tubes are obsolete Radio-frquency power amplifiers Cathode-ray tubes Video camera tubes Traveling-wave tubes Basic digital principles Numbering systems Logic signals Basic logic operations Symbols for logic gates Complex logic operators Working with truth tables Boolean algebra The flip-flop The counter The register The digital revolution Test: Part 3 Part 4 Advanced electronics and related technology 31 Acoustics, audio, and high fidelity Acoustics Loudness and phase Technical considerations Basic components Other components Specialized systems Recorded media Electromagnetic interference Wireless and personal communications systems Cellular communications Satellite systems Acoustic transducers Radio-frequency transducers Infrared transducers Wireless local area networks Wireless security systems Hobby radio Noise Computers and the Internet The microprocessor and CPU Bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes The hard drive Other forms of mass storage Random-access memory The display The printer The modem The Internet Robotics and artificial intelligence Asimov’s three laws Robot generations Independent or dependent? Robot arms Robotic hearing and vision Robotic navigation Telepresence The mind of the machine Relationship with robotics Schematic symbols

    Electrical Circuits Simulation Lab – Laboratory Manual Book

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    Physics Lecture Notes – Phys 395 Electronics Book

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    Physics Lecture Notes - Phys 395 Electronics Book

    1 Direct Current Circuits 1.1 Basic Concepts 1.1.1 Current 1.1.2 Potential Difference 1.1.3 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 1.2 The Schematic Diagram 1.2.1 Electromotive Force (EMF) 1.2.2 Ground 1.3 Kirchoff’s Laws 1.3.1 Series and Parallel Combinations of Resistors 1.3.2 Voltage Divider 1.3.3 Current Divider 1.3.4 Branch Current Method 1.3.5 Loop Current Method 1.4 Equivalent Circuits 1.4.1 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 1.4.2 Determination of Thevenin and Norton Circuit Elements 1.5 Problems 2 Alternating Current Circuits 2.1 AC Circuit Elements 2.1.1 Capacitance 2.1.2 Inductance 2.2 Circuit Equations 2.2.1 RC Circuit 2.2.2 RL Circuit 2.2.3 LC Circuit 2.2.4 RCL Circuit 2.3 Sinusoidal Sources and Complex Impedance 2.3.1 Resistive Impedance 2.3.2 Capacitive Impedance 2.3.3 Inductive Impedance 2.3.4 Combined Impedances 2.4 Resonance and the Transfer Function 2.5 Four-Terminal Networks 2.6 Single-Term Approximations of H 2.7 Problems 3 Filter Circuits 3.1 Filters and Amplifiers 3.2 Log-Log Plots and Decibels 3.3 Passive RC Filters 3.3.1 Low-Pass Filter 3.3.2 Approximate Integrater 3.3.3 High-Pass Filter 3.3.4 Approximate Differentiator 3.4 Complex Frequencies and the s-Plane 3.4.1 Poles and Zeros of H 3.5 Sequential RC Filters 3.6 Passive RCL Filters 3.6.1 Series RCL Circuit 3.7 Amplifier Model 3.7.1 One-, Two- and Three-Pole Amplifier Models 3.7.2 Amplifier with Negative Feedback 3.8 Problems 4 Diode Circuits 4.1 Energy Levels 4.2 The PN Junction and the Diode Effect 4.2.1 Current in the Diode 4.2.2 The PN Diode as a Circuit Element 4.2.3 The Zener Diode 4.2.4 Light-Emitting Diodes 4.2.5 Light-Sensitive Diodes 4.3 Circuit Applications of Ordinary Diodes 4.3.1 Power Supplies 4.3.2 Rectification 4.3.3 Power Supply Filtering 4.3.4 Split Power Supply 4.3.5 Voltage Multiplier 4.3.6 Clamping 4.3.7 Clipping 4.3.8 Diode Gate 4.3.9 Diode Protection 4.4 Problems 5 Transistor Circuits 5.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors 5.1.1 Transistor Operation (NPN) 5.1.2 Basic Circuit Configurations 5.1.3 Small-Signal Models 5.1.4 Ideal and Perfect Bipolar Transistor Models 5.1.5 Transconductance Model 5.2 The Common Emitter Amplifier 5.2.1 DC Biasing 5.2.2 Approximate AC Model 5.2.3 The Basic CE Amplifier 5.2.4 CE Amplifier with Emitter Resistor 5.3 The Common Collector Amplifier 5.4 The Common Base Amplifier 5.5 The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) 5.5.1 Principles of Operation 5.5.2 Small-Signal AC Model 5.6 JFET Common Source Amplifier 5.7 JFET Common Drain Amplifier 5.8 The Insulated-Gate Field Effect Transistor 5.9 Power MOSFET Circuits 5.10 Multiple Transistor Circuits 5.10.1 Coupling Between Single Transistor Stages 5.10.2 Darlington and Sziklai Connections 5.11 Problems 6 Operational Amplifiers 6.1 Open-Loop Amplifiers 6.2 Ideal Amplifier Approximation 6.2.1 Non-inverting Amplifiers 6.2.2 Inverting Amplifiers 6.2.3 Mathematical Operations 6.2.4 Active Filters 6.2.5 General Feedback Elements 6.2.6 Differential Amplifiers 6.3 Analysis Using Finite Open-Loop Gain 6.3.1 Output Impedance 6.3.2 Input Impedance 6.3.3 Voltage and Current Offsets 6.3.4 Current Limiting and Slew Rate 6.4 Problems 7 Digital Circuits 7.1 Number Systems 7.1.1 Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers 7.1.2 Number Representation 7.2 Boolean Algebra 7.3 Logic Gates 7.4 Combinational Logic 7.4.1 Combinational Logic Design Using Truth Tables 7.4.2 The AND-OR Gate 7.4.3 Exclusive-OR Gate 7.4.4 Timing Diagrams 7.4.5 Signal Race 7.4.6 Half and Full Adders 7.5 Multiplexers and Decoders 7.6 Schmitt Trigger 7.7 The Data Bus 7.8 Two-State Storage Elements 7.9 Latches and Un-Clocked Flip-Flops 7.9.1 Latches 7.9.2 RS and RS Flip-Flops 7.10 Clocked Flip-Flops 7.10.1 Clocked RS Flip-Flop 7.10.2 D Flip-Flop 7.10.3 JK Flip-Flop 7.11 Dynamically Clocked Flip-Flops 7.11.1 Master/Slave or Pulse Triggering 7.11.2 Edge Triggering 7.12 One-Shots 7.13 Registers 7.13.1 Data Registers 7.13.2 Shift Registers 7.13.3 Counters 7.13.4 Divide-by-N Counters 7.14 Problems 8 Data Acquisition and Process Control 8.1 Transducers 8.2 Signal Conditioning Circuits 8.2.1 De-bouncing the Mechanical Switch 8.2.2 Op Amps for Gain, Offset and Function Modification 8.2.3 Sample-and-Hold Amplifiers 8.2.4 Gated Charge-to-Voltage Amplifier 8.2.5 Comparator 8.3 Oscillators 8.3.1 Application to Interval Timers 8.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion 8.4.1 Current Summing and IC Devices 8.4.2 DAC Limitations 8.5 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 8.5.1 Parallel-Encoding ADC (flash ADC) 8.5.2 Successive-Approximation ADC 8.5.3 Dual-Slope ADC 8.6 Time-to-Digital Conversion 8.7 Problems 9 Computers and Device Interconnection 9.1 Elements of the Microcomputer 9.1.1 Microprocessor and Microcomputer 9.1.2 Functional Elements of the Computer 9.1.3 Mechanical Arrangement 9.1.4 Addressing Devices on the Bus 9.1.5 Control of the Bus 9.1.6 Clock Lines 9.1.7 Random Access Memory 9.1.8 Read-Only Memory 9.1.9 I/O Ports 9.1.10 Interrupts 9.2 8-, 16-, or 32-Bit Busses

    Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design Second Edition Book

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  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design Second Edition Book

    Table of Content

    Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design Second Edition Book

    Chapter-1 Introduction to Communications Circuits 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Lower Frequency Analog Design and Microwave Design Versus Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuit Design 1.2.1 Impedance Levels for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Design 1.2.2 Units for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Design 1.3 Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits Used in a Communications Transceiver 1.4 Overview References ChaptER 2 Issues in RFIC Design: Noise, Linearity, and Signals 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Noise 2.2.1 Thermal Noise 2.2.2 Available Noise Power 2.2.3 Available Power from Antenna 2.2.4 The Concept of Noise Figure 2.2.5 The Noise Figure of an Amplifer Circuit 2.2.6 Phase Noise 2.3 Linearity and Distortion in RF Circuits 2.3.1 Power Series Expansion 2.3.2 Third-Order Intercept Point 2.3.3 Second-Order Intercept Point 2.3.4 The 1-dB Compression Point 2.3.5 Relationships Between 1-dB Compression and IP3 Points 2.3.6 Broadband Measures of Linearity 2.4 Modulated Signals 2.4.1 Phase Modulation 2.4.2 Frequency Modulation 2.4.3 Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) 2.4.4 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 2.4.5 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) ChaptER 3 System Level Architecture and Design Considerations 3.1 Transmitter and Receiver Architectures and Some Design Considerations 3.1.1 Superheterodyne Transceivers 3.1.2 Direct Conversion Transceivers Low IF Transceiver and Other Alternative Transceiver Architectures System Level Considerations The Noise Figure of Components in Series 3.2.2 The Linearity of Components in Series 3.2.3 Dynamic Range 3.2.4 Image Signals and Image Reject Filtering 3.2.5 Blockers and Blocker Filtering 3.2.6 The Effect of Phase Noise on SNR in a Receiver 3.2.7 DC Offset 3.2.8 Second-Order Nonlinearity Issues 3.2.9 Receiver Automatic Gain Control Issues 3.2.10 EVM in Transmitters Including Phase Noise, Linearity, IQ Mismatch, EVM with OFDM Waveforms, and Nonlinearity 3.2.11 ADC and DAC Specifcations 3.3 Antennas and the Link Between a Transmitter and a Receiver Chapter 4 A Brief Review of Technology 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Bipolar Transistor Description 4.3 b Current Dependence 4.4 Small-Signal Model 4.5 Small-Signal Parameters 4.6 High-Frequency Effects 4.6.1 fT as a Function of Current 4.7 Noise in Bipolar Transistors 4.7.1 Thermal Noise in Transistor Components 4.7.2 Shot Noise 4.7.3 1/f Noise 4.8 Base Shot Noise Discussion 4.9 Noise Sources in the Transistor Model 4.10 Bipolar Transistor Design Considerations 4.11 CMOS Transistors 4.11.1 NMOS Transistor Operation 4.11.2 PMOS Transistor Operation 4.11.3 CMOS Small-Signal Model 4.11.4 fT and fmax for CMOS Transistors 4.11.5 CMOS Small-Signal Model Including Noise 4.12 Practical Considerations in Transistor Layout 4.12.1 Typical Transistors 4.12.2 Symmetry 4.12.3 Matching 4.12.4 ESD Protection and Antenna Rules Impedance Matching 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Review of the Smith Chart 5.3 Impedance Matching 5.4 Conversions Between Series and Parallel Resistor-Inductor and Resistor-Capacitor Circuits 5.5 Tapped Capacitors and Inductors 5.6 The Concept of Mutual Inductance 5.7 Matching Using Transformers 5.8 Tuning a Transformer 5.9 The Bandwidth of an Impedance Transformation Network 5.10 Quality Factor of an LC Resonator 5.11 Broadband Impedance Matching 5.12 Transmission Lines 5.13 S, Y, and Z Parameters Chapter 6 The Use and Design of Passive Circuit Elements in IC Technologies 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Technology Back End and Metalization in IC Technologies 6.3 Sheet Resistance and the Skin Effect 6.4 Parasitic Capacitance 6.5 Parasitic Inductance 6.6 Current Handling in Metal Lines 6.7 Poly Resistors and Diffusion Resistors 6.8 Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors and Stacked Metal Capacitors 6.9 Applications of On-Chip Spiral Inductors and Transformers 6.10 Design of Inductors and Transformers 6.11 Some Basic Lumped Models for Inductors 6.12 Calculating the Inductance of Spirals 6.13 Self-Resonance of Inductors 6.14 The Quality Factor of an Inductor 6.15 Characterization of an Inductor 6.16 Some Notes about the Proper Use of Inductors 6.17 Layout of Spiral Inductors 6.18 Isolating the Inductor 6.19 The Use of Slotted Ground Shields and Inductors 6.20 Basic Transformer Layouts in IC Technologies 6.21 Multilevel Inductors 6.22 Characterizing Transformers for Use in ICs 6.23 On-Chip Transmission Lines 6.23.1 Effect of Transmission Line 6.23.2 Transmission Line Examples 6.24 High-Frequency Measurement of On-Chip Passives and Some Common De-Embedding Techniques 6.25 Packaging 6.25.1 Other Packaging Techniques and Board Level Technology Chapter-7 LNA Design 7.1 Introduction and Basic Amplifers 7.1.1 Common-Emitter/Source Amplifer (Driver) 7.1.2 Simplifed Expressions for Widely Separated Poles 7.1.3 The Common-Base/Gate Amplifer (Cascode) 7.1.4 The Common-Collector/Drain Amplifer (Emitter/Source Follower) 7.2 Amplifers with Feedback 7.2.1 Common-Emitter/Source with Series Feedback (Emitter/Source Degeneration) 7.2.2 The Common-Emitter/Source with Shunt Feedback 7.3 Noise in Amplifers 7.3.1 Input Referred Noise Model of the Bipolar Transistor 7.3.2 Noise Figure of the Common-Emitter Amplifer 7.3.3 Noise Model of the CMOS Transistor 7.3.4 Input Matching of LNAs for Low Noise 7.3.5 Relationship Between Noise Figure and Bias Current 7.3.6 Effect of the Cascode on Noise Figure 7.3.7 Noise in the Common-Collector/Drain Amplifer 7.4 Linearity in Amplifers 7.4.1 Exponential Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistor 7.4.2 Nonlinearity in the CMOS Transistor 7.4.3 Nonlinearity in the Output Impedance of the Bipolar Transistor 7.4.4 High-Frequency Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistor 7.4.5 Linearity in Common-Collector/Drain Confguration 7.5 Stability 7.6 Differential Amplifers 7.6.1 Bipolar Differential Pair 7.6.2 Linearity in Bipolar Differential Pairs 7.6.3 CMOS Differential Pair 7.6.4 Linearity of the CMOS Differential Pair 7.7 Low Voltage Topologies for LNAs and the Use of On-Chip Transformers 7.8 DC Bias Networks 7.8.1 Temperature Effects 7.8.2 Temperature Independent Reference Generators 7.8.3 Constant GM Biasing for CMOS 7.9 Broadband LNA Design Example 7.10 Distributed Amplifers 7.10.1 Trasmission Lines 7.10.2 Steps in Designing the Distributed Amplifer References Selected Bibliography ChaptER 8 Mixers 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Mixing with Nonlinearity 8.3 Basic Mixer Operation 8.4 Transconductance-Controlled Mixer 8.5 Double-Balanced Mixer 8.6 Mixer with Switching of Upper Quad 8.6.1 Why LO Switching? 8.6.2 Picking the LO Level 8.6.3 Analysis of Switching Modulator 8.7 Mixer Noise 8.7.1 Summary of Bipolar Mixer Noise Components 8.7.2 Summary of CMOS Mixer Noise Components 8.8 Linearity 8.8.1 Desired Nonlinearity 8.8.2 Undesired Nonlinearity 8.9 Improving Isolation 8.10 General Design Comments 8.10.1 Sizing Transistors 8.10.2 Increasing Gain 8.10.3 Improvement of IP3 8.10.4 Improving Noise Figure 8.10.5 Effect of Bond Pads and the Package 8.10.6 Matching, Bias Resistors, Gain 8.11 Image-Reject and Single-Sideband Mixer 8.11.1 Alternative Single-Sideband Mixers 8.11.2 Generating 90° Phase Shift 8.11.3 Image Rejection with Amplitude and Phase Mismatch 8.12 Alternative Mixer Designs 8.12.1 The Moore Mixer 8.12.2 Mixers with Transformer Input 8.12.3 Mixer with Simultaneous Noise and Power Match 8.12.4 Mixers with Coupling Capacitors 8.12.5 CMOS Mixer with Current Reuse 8.12.6 Integrated Passive Mixer 8.12.7 Subsampling Mixer Selected Bibliography ChaptER 9 Voltage Controlled Oscillators 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The LC Resonator 9.3 Adding Negative Resistance Through Feedback to the Resonator 9.4 Popular Implementations of Feedback to the Resonator 9.5 Confguration of the Amplifer (Colpitts or –Gm) 9.6 Analysis of an Oscillator as a Feedback System 9.6.1 Oscillator Closed-Loop Analysis 9.6.2 Capacitor Ratios with Colpitts Oscillators 9.6.3 Oscillator Open-Loop Analysis 9.6.4 Simplifed Loop Gain Estimates 9.7 Negative Resistance Generated by the Amplifer 9.7.1 Negative Resistance of the Colpitts Oscillator 9.7.2 Negative Resistance for Series and Parallel Circuits 9.7.3 Negative Resistance Analysis of –Gm Oscillator 9.8 Comments on Oscillator Analysis 9.9 Basic Differential Oscillator Topologies 9.10 A Modifed Common-Collector Colpitts Oscillator with Buffering 9.11 Several Refnements to the –Gm Topology Using Bipolar Transistors 9.12 The Effect of Parasitics on the Frequency of Oscillation 9.13 Large-Signal Nonlinearity in the Transistor 9.14 Bias Shifting During Startup 9.15 Colpitts Oscillator Amplitude 9.16 –Gm Oscillator Amplitude 9.17 Phase Noise 9.17.1 Linear or Additive Phase Noise and Leeson’s Formula 9.17.2 Some Additional Notes About Low-Frequency Noise 9.17.3 Nonlinear Noise 9.17.4 Impulse Sensitivity Noise Analysis 9.18 Making the Oscillator Tunable 9.19 Low-Frequency Phase-Noise Upconversion Reduction Techniques 9.19.1 Bank Switching 9.19.2 gm Matching and Waveform Symmetry 9.19.3 Differential Varactors and Differential Tuning 9.20 VCO Automatic-Amplitude Control Circuits 9.21 Supply Noise Filters in Oscillators, Example Circuit 9.22 Ring Oscillators 9.23 Quadrature Oscillators and Injection Locking 9.23.1 Phase Shift of Injection Locked Oscillator 9.23.2 Parallel Coupled Quadrature LC Oscillators 9.23.3 Series Coupled Quadrature Oscillators 9.23.4 Other Quadrature Generation Techniques 9.24 Other Oscillators 9.24.1 Multivibrators 9.24.2 Crystal Oscillators Selected Bibliography ChaptER 10 Frequency Synthesis 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Integer-N PLL Synthesizers 10.3 PLL Components 10.3.1 Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) and Dividers 10.3.2 Phase Detectors 10.3.3 The Loop Filter 10.4 Continuous-Time Analysis for PLL Synthesizers 10.4.1 Simplifed Loop Equations 10.4.2 PLL System Frequency Response and Bandwidth 10.4.3 Complete Loop Transfer Function Including C2 10.5 Discrete Time Analysis for PLL Synthesizers 10.6 Transient Behavior of PLLs 10.6.1 PLL Linear Transient Behavior 10.6.2 Nonlinear Transient Behavior 10.6.3 Various Noise Sources in PLL Synthesizers 10.6.4 In-Band and Out-of-Band Phase Noise in PLL Synthesis 10.7 Fractional-N PLL Frequency Synthesizers 10.7.1 Fractional-N Synthesizer with a Dual Modulus Prescaler 10.7.2 Fractional-N Synthesizer with Multimodulus Divider 10.7.3 Fractional-N Spurious Components References ChaptER 11 Power Amplifers 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Power Capability 11.3 Effciency Calculations 11.4 Matching Considerations 11.4.1 Matching to S22* Versus Matching to Gopt 11.5 Class A, B, and C Amplifers 11.5.1 Class B Push-Pull Arrangements 11.5.2 Models for Transconductance 11.6 Class D Amplifers 11.7 Class E Amplifers 11.7.1 Analysis of Class E Amplifer 11.7.2 Class E Equations 11.7.3 Class E Equations for Finite Output Q 11.7.4 Saturation Voltage and Resistance 11.7.5 Transition Time 11.8 Class F Amplifers 11.8.1 Variation on Class F: Second-Harmonic Peaking 11.8.2 Variation on Class F: Quarter-Wave Transmission Lines 11.9 Class G and H Amplifers 11.10 Summary of Amplifer Classes for RF Integrated Circuits 11.11 AC Load Line 11.12 Matching to Achieve Desired Power 11.13 Transistor Saturation 11.14 Current Limits 11.15 Current Limits in Integrated Inductors 11.16 Power Combining 11.17 Thermal Runaway—Ballasting 11.18 Breakdown Voltage and Biasing 11.19 Packaging 11.20 Effects and Implications of Nonlinearity 11.20.1 Cross Modulation 11.20.2 AM-to-PM Conversion 11.20.3 Spectral Regrowth 11.20.4 Linearization Techniques 11.20.5 Feedforward 11.20.6 Feedback 11.20.7 Predistortion 11.21 CMOS Power Amplifer Examples

    Handbook For Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Book

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    Table of Content

    Handbook For Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Book

    1 Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Types of Solar PV System 1.3 Solar PV Technology • Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies • Conversion Effciency • Effects of Temperature 1.4 Technical Information 2 Solar PV Systems on a Building 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Installation Angle 2.3 Avoid Shading PV Modules 2.4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules 2.5 Solar PV Output Profle 2.6 Solar PV Yield 2.7 Cost of a Solar PV System 3 Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Getting Started • Get an Experienced and Licensed Contractor • Choosing Between Bids • Solar PV System Warranty • Regular Maintenance • Other Relevant Matters 4 Solar PV System Installation Requirements 4.1 Electrical Installation Licence 4.2 Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements 4.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence 4.4 Conservation and Development Control Requirements 4.5 Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control 4.6 Structural Safety and Lightning Protection • Structural Safety • Lightning Protection 4.7 Connection to the Power Grid 4.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid 4.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity 4.10 Design and Installation Checklist 5 Operations and Maintenance 5.1 Operations of Solar PV Systems 5.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works APPendIx A exAMPleS Of SOlAR PV SySteM On BuIldIngS In SIngAPORe A.1 ZERO ENERGY BUILDING @ BCA ACADEMY A.2 POH ERN SHIH (TEMPLE OF THANKSGIVING) A.3 313 SOMERSET CENTRAL A.4 SENTOSA COVE A.5 MARINA BARRAGE A.6 LONZA BIOLOGICS A.7 ZERO ENERGY HOUSE A.8 TAMPINES GRANDE A.9 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT SERANGOON NORTH PRECINCT A.10 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT WELLINGTON CIRCLE PRECINCT APPendIx B B.1 ENGAGING A LICENSED ELECTRICAL WORKER APPendIx C C.1 CONTACT INFORMATION APPendIx d – InCentIVeS fOR SOlAR PV SySteM D.1 SOLAR CAPABILITY SCHEME (SCS) D.2 MARKET DEVELOPMENT FUND (MDF) D.3 GREEN MARK SCHEME D.4 GREEN MARK GROSS FLOOR AREA (GM-GFA) INCENTIVE SCHEME D.5 $100 MILLION GREEN MARK INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR ExISTING BUILDINGS (GMIS-EB) D.6 ENHANCED $20 MILLION GREEN MARK INCENTIVE SCHEME FOR NEW BUILDINGS (GMIS-NB)

    Practical Electronics Handbook Sixth Edition Book

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  • Practical Electronics Handbook Sixth Edition Book

    Table of Content

    Practical Electronics Handbook Sixth Edition Book

    Introduction: Mathematical Conventions CHAPTER 1 Resistors Passive components Resistors Resistivity Resistivity calculations Resistor construction Tolerances and E-series Resistance value coding Surface mounted resistors Resistor characteristics Dissipation and temperature rise Variables and laws Resistors in circuit Kirchoff’s laws The superposition theorem Thevenin’s theorem Thermistors Variation of resistance with temperature CHAPTER 2 Capacitors Capacitance The parallel-plate capacitor Construction Other capacitor characteristics Energy and charge storage Time constants Reactance CR circuits CHAPTER 3 Inductive and Tuned Circuit Components Inductors Transformers Signal-matching transformers Mains transformers Other transformer types Surface-mounted inductors Inductance calculations Untuned transformers Inductive reactance LCR circuits Coupled tuned circuits Quartz crystals Temperature effects Wave filters CHAPTER 4 Chemical Cells and Batteries Introduction Primary and secondary cells Battery connections Simple cell The Leclanché cell The alkaline primary cells Miniature (button) cells Lithium cells Secondary cells Nickel–cadmium cells Lithium-ion rechargeable cells CHAPTER 5 Active Discrete Components Diodes Varactor diodes Schottky diodes LEDs Photodiodes Transient voltage suppressors (TVS) Typical diode circuits Transistors Bias for linear amplifiers Transistor parameters and linear amplifier gain Transistor packaging Noise Voltage gain Other bipolar transistor types Darlington pair circuit Field-effect transistors FET handling problems Negative feedback Heatsinks Switching circuits Other switching devices Diode and transistor coding CHAPTER 6 Linear ICs The 741 op-amp Gain and bandwidth Offset Bias methods Basic circuits General notes on op-amp circuits Modern op-amps Other operational amplifier circuits Current differencing amplifiers Other linear amplifier ICs Phase-locked loops Waveform generators Active and switched capacitor filters Voltage regulator ICs Adjustable regulator circuits The 555 timer CHAPTER 7 Familiar Linear Circuits Overview Discrete transistor circuits Audio circuits Simple active filters Circuits for audio output stages Class D amplifiers Wideband voltage amplification circuits Sine wave and other oscillator circuits Other crystal oscillators Astable, monostable and bistable circuits Radio-frequency circuits Modulation circuits Optical circuits Linear power supply circuits Switch-mode power supplies CHAPTER 8 Sensors and Transducers Introduction Strain and pressure Direction and motion Light, UV and IR radiation Temperature Sound CHAPTER 9 Digital Logic Introduction Logic families Other logic families Combinational logic Number bases Sequential logic Counters and dividers CHAPTER 10 Programmable Devices Memory Read-only memory (ROM) Programmable read-only memory (PROM) Volatile memory (RAM) Programmable logic Complex programmable logic devices (CPLD) Field programmable gate array (FPGA) Hardware description language (HDL) Other programmable devices Other applications of memory devices Useful websites CHAPTER 11 Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Introduction Binary stored program computers Von Neumann and Harvard architecture Microprocessor systems Power-up reset and program execution Programming The ARM processor Developing microprocessor hardware Electromagnetic compatibility Microcontroller manufacturers CHAPTER 12 Microprocessor Interfacing Output circuits Display devices Light-emitting diode (LED) displays Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) Input circuits Switches CHAPTER 13 Data Converters Introduction Digital-to-analogue converters (DACs) Digital potentiometer Binary weighted resistor converter The R2R ladder Charge distribution DAC Pulse width modulator Reconstruction filter Analogue-to-digital converters Resolution and quantization Sampling Aliasing Successive approximation analogue-to-digital converter Sigma–delta ADC (over sampling or bitstream converter) Dual-slope ADC Voltage references for analogue-to-digital converters PCB layout Connecting a serial ADC to a PC Useful websites CHAPTER 14 Transferring Digital Data Introduction Parallel transfer IEEE 1284 Centronics printer interface The IEEE-488 bus Serial transfer EIA/TIA 232E serial interface RS-422/RS-485 Wireless links Infra-red Audio frequency signalling Base-band signalling Error detection and correction Useful websites CHAPTER 15 Microcontroller Applications Introduction Configuration Clock Internal RC oscillator Watchdog and sleep Power-up reset Setting up I/O ports Integrated peripherals Counter timer Pulse width modulator Serial interfaces UART/USART SPI/I2C Bus Interrupts Implementing serial output in software Converting binary data to ASCII hex Useful websites CHAPTER 16 Digital Signal Processing Introduction Low-pass and high-pass filters Finite impulse response (FIR) filters Quantization Saturated arithmetic Truncation Bandpass and notch filters Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters Other applications Design tools Further reading CHAPTER 17 Computer Aids to Circuit Design Introduction Schematic capture Libraries Connections Net names Virtual wiring Net lists Printing Simulation Analysis DC Analysis Temperature sweep AC Analysis Transient analysis PCB layout Design rules Gerber and NC drill file checking Desktop routing machines Useful websites CHAPTER 18 Connectors, Prototyping and Mechanical Construction Hardware Video connectors Audio connectors Control knobs and switches Switches Cabinets and cases Handling Heat dissipation Constructing circuits Soldering and unsoldering Desoldering Other soldering tools CHAPTER 19 Testing and Troubleshooting Introduction Test equipment Test leads Power supplies and battery packs Digital multimeters LCR meter Oscilloscope Signal generator Temperature testing Mains work Testing Further reading Appendix A Standard Metric Wire Table Appendix B Arithmatic and Logic Instructions Table Appendix C Hex record formats Appendix D Gerber data format Appendix E Pinout information links Appendix F SMT packages and guides

    Practical Electronics for Inventors Book

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  • Practical Electronics for Inventors Book

    Table of Content

    Practical Electronics for Inventors Book

    CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Electronics CHAPTER 2 Theory 2.1 Current 2.2 Voltage 2.3 Resistance 2.4 DC Power Sources 2.5 Two Simple Battery Sources 2.6 Electric Circuits 2.7 Ohm’s Law 2.8 Circuit Reduction 2.9 Kirchhoff’s Laws 2.10 Thevenin’s Theorem 2.11 Sinusoidal Power Sources 2.12 Root Mean Square (rms) Voltages 2.13 Capacitors 2.14 Reactance of a Capacitor 2.15 Inductors 2.16 Reactance of an Inductor 2.17 Fundamental Potentials and Circuits 2.18 DC Sources and RC/RL/RLC Circuits 2.19 Complex Numbers 2.20 Circuits with Sinusoidal Sources 2.21 Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with Complex Impedances 2.22 Impedances in Series and the Voltage Divider 2.23 Impedances in Parallel and the Current Divider 2.24 Applying Kirchhoff’s Laws in AC Form 2.25 Thevenin’s Theorem in AC Form 2.26 Power in AC Circuits 2.27 Decibels 2.28 Resonance in LC Circuits 2.29 Resonance in RLC Circuits 2.30 Filters 2.31 Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources 2.32 Circuits with Nonperiodic Sources 2.33 Nonlinear Circuits and Analyzing Circuits by Intuition CHAPTER 3 Basic Electronic Circuit Components 3.1 Wires, Cables, and Connectors 3.1.1 Wires 3.1.2 Cables 3.1.3 Connectors 3.1.4 Wiring and Connector Symbols 3.1.5 High-Frequency Effects within Wires and Cables 3.2 Batteries 3.2.1 How a Cell Works 3.2.2 Primary Batteries 3.2.3 Comparing Primary Batteries 3.2.4 Secondary Batteries 3.2.5 Battery Capacity 3.2.6 Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery 3.3 Switches 3.3.1 How a Switch Works 3.3.2 Describing a Switch 3.3.3 Kinds of Switches 3.3.4 Simple Switch Applications 3.4 Relays 3.4.1 Specific Kinds of Relays 3.4.2 A Few Notes about Relays 3.4.3 Some Simple Relay Circuits 3.5 Resistors 3.5.1 How a Resistor Works 3.5.2 Basic Resistor Operation 3.5.3 Types of Fixed Resistors 3.5.4 Understanding Resistor Labels 3.5.5 Power Ratings for Resistors 3.5.6 Variable Resistors 3.6 Capacitors 3.6.1 How a Capacitor Works 3.6.2 A Note about I = CdV/dt 3.6.3 Water Analogy of a Capacitor 3.6.4 Basic Capacitor Functions 3.6.5 Kinds of Capacitors 3.6.6 Variable Capacitors 3.6.7 Reading Capacitor Labels 3.6.8 Important Things to Know about Capacitors 3.6.9 Applications 3.7 Inductors 3.7.1 How an Inductor Works 3.7.2 Basic Inductor Operation 3.7.3 Kinds of Coils 3.8 Transformers 3.8.1 Basic Operation 3.8.2 Special Kinds of Transformers 3.8.3 Applications 3.8.4 Real Kinds of Transformers 3.9 Fuses and Circuit Breakers 3.9.1 Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers CHAPTER 4 Semiconductors 4.1 Semiconductor Technology 4.1.1 What Is a Semiconductor? 4.1.2 Applications of Silicon 4.2 Diodes 4.2.1 How a pn-Junction Diode Works 4.2.2 Diode Water Analogy 4.2.3 Basic Applications 4.2.4 Important Things to Know about Diodes 4.2.5 Zener Diodes 4.2.6 Zener Diode Water Analogy 4.2.7 Basic Applications for Zener Diodes 4.3 Transistors 4.3.1 Introduction to Transistors 4.3.2 Bipolar Transistors 4.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors 4.3.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors 4.3.5 Unijunction Transistors 4.4 Thyristors 4.4.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers 4.4.3 Silicon-Controlled Switches 4.4.4 Triacs 4.4.5 Four-Layer Diodes and Diacs CHAPTER 5 Optoelectronics 5.1 A Little Lecture on Photons 5.2 Lamps 5.3 Light-Emitting Diodes 5.3.1 How an LED Works 5.3.2 Kinds of LEDs 5.3.3 Technical Stuff about LEDs 5.3.4 Basic LED Operations 5.4 Photoresistors 5.4.1 How a Photoresistor Works 5.4.1 Technical Stuff 5.4.2 Applications 5.5 Photodiodes 5.5.1 How a Photodiode Works 5.5.2 Basic Operations 5.5.3 Kinds of Photodiodes 5.6 Solar Cells 5.6.1 Basic Operations 5.7 Phototransistors 5.7.1 How a Phototransistor Works 5.7.2 Basic Configurations 5.7.3 Kinds of Phototransistors 5.7.4 Technical Stuff 5.7.5 Applications 5.8 Photothyristors 5.8.1 How LASCRs Work 5.8.1 Basic Operation 5.9 Optoisolators 5.9.1 Integrated Optoisolators 5.9.2 Applications CHAPTER 6 Integrated Circuits 6.1 IC Packages 6.2 Some Basic ICs to Get You Started CHAPTER 7 Operational Amplifiers 7.1 Operational Amplifier Water Analogy 7.2 How Op Amps Work (The “Cop-Out” Explanation) 7.3 Theory 7.4 Negative Feedback 7.5 Positive Feedback 7.6 Real Kinds of Op Amps 7.7 Op Amp Specifications 7.8 Powering Op Amps 7.9 Some Practical Notes 7.10 Voltage and Current Offset Compensation 7.11 Frequency Compensation 7.12 Comparators 7.13 Comparators with Hysteresis 7.13.1 Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis 7.13.2 Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis 7.14 Using Single-Supply Comparators 7.15 Window Comparator 7.16 Voltage-Level Indicator 7.17 Applications CHAPTER 8 Filters 8.1 Things to Know before You Start Designing Filters 8.2 Basic Filters 8.3 Passive Low-Pass Filter Design 8.4 A Note on Filter Types 8.5 Passive High-Pass Filter Design 8.6 Passive Bandpass Filter Design 8.7 Passive Notch Filter Design 8.8 Active Filter Design 8.8.1 Active Low-Pass Filter Example 8.8.2 Active High-Pass Filter Example 8.8.3 Active Bandpass Filters 8.8.4 Active Notch Filters 8.9 Integrated Filter Circuits CHAPTER 9 Oscillators and Timers 9.1 RC Relaxation Oscillators 9.2 The 555 Timer IC 9.2.1 How a 555 Works (Astable Operation) 9.2.2 Basic Astable Operation 9.2.3 How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation) 9.2.4 Basic Monostable Operation 9.2.5 Some Important Notes about 555 Timers 9.2.6 Simple 555 Applications 9.3 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) 9.4 Wien-Bridge and Twin-T Oscillators 9.5 LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators) 9.6 Crystal Oscillators CHAPTER 10 Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies 10.1 Voltage-Regulator ICs 10.1.1 Fixed Regulator ICs 10.1.2 Adjustable Regulator ICs 10.1.3 Regulator Specifications 10.2 A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications 10.3 The Transformer 10.4 Rectifier Packages 10.5 A Few Simple Power Supplies 10.6 Technical Points about Ripple Reduction 10.7 Loose Ends 10.8 Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers) 10.9 Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages 10.10 Power Supply Construction CHAPTER 11 Audio Electronics 11.1 A Little Lecture on Sound 11.2 Microphones 11.3 Microphone Specifications 11.4 Audio Amplifiers 11.5 Preamplifiers 11.6 Mixer Circuits 11.7 A Note on Impedance Matching 11.8 Speakers 11.9 Crossover Networks 11.10 Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers 11.11 Audible-Signal Devices 11.12 Miscellaneous Audio Circuits CHAPTER Digital Electronics 12.1 The Basics of Digital Electronics 12.1.1 Digital Logic States 12.1.2 Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics 12.1.3 Clock Timing and Parallel versus Serial Transmission 12.2 Logic Gates 12.2.1 Multiple-Input Logic Gates 12.2.2 Digital Logic Gate ICs 12.2.3 Applications for a Single Logic Gate 12.2.4 Combinational Logic 12.2.5 Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps) 12.3 Combinational Devices 12.3.1 Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and Bilateral Switches 12.3.2 Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders 12.3.3 Encoders and Code Converters 12.3.4 Binary Adders 12.3.5 Binary Adder/Subtractor 12.3.6 Arithmetic/Logic Units (ALUs) 12.3.7 Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs 12.3.8 Parity Generator/Checker 12.3.9 A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend toward Microcontroller Control 12.4 Logic Families 12.4.1 TTL Family of ICs 12.4.2 CMOS Family of ICs 12.4.3 Input/Output Voltages and Noise Margins 12.4.4 Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays 12.4.5 A Detailed Look at the Various TTL and CMOS Subfamilies 12.4.6 A Look at a Few Other Logic Series 12.4.7 Logic Gates with Open-Collector Outputs 12.4.8 Schmitt-Triggered Gates 12.4.9 Interfacing Logic Families 12.5 Powering and Testing Logic ICs and General Rules of Thumb 12.5.1 Powering Logic ICs 12.5.2 Power Supply Decoupling 12.5.3 Unused Inputs 12.5.4 Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers 12.6 Sequential Logic 12.6.1 SR Flip-Flops 12.6.2 SR Flip-Flop (Latch) ICs 12.6.3 D Flip-Flops 12.6.4 A Few Simple D-Type Flip-Flop Applications 12.6.5 Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops 12.6.6 JK Flip-Flops 12.6.7 Applications for JK Flip-Flops 12.6.8 Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops 12.6.9 Digital Clock Generator and Single-Pulse Generators 12.6.10 Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits 12.6.11 More on Switch Debouncers 12.6.12 Pullup and Pulldown Resistors 12.7 Counter ICs 12.7.1 Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs 12.7.2 Synchronous Counter ICs 12.7.3 A Note on Counters with Displays 12.8 Shift Registers 12.8.1 Serial-In/Serial-Out Shifter Registers 12.8.2 Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers 12.8.3 Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Register 12.8.4 Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer) 12.8.5 Johnson Shift Counter 12.8.6 Shift Register ICs 12.8.7 Simple Shift Register Applications 12.9 Three-State Buffers, Latches, and Transceivers 12.9.1 Three-State Octal Buffers 12.9.2 Three-State Octal Latches and Flip-Flops 12.9.3 Transceivers 12.10 Additional Digital Topics CHAPTER 13 DC Motors, RC Servos, and Stepper Motors 13.1 DC Continuous Motors 13.2 Speed Control of DC Motors 13.3 Directional Control of DC Motors 13.4 RC Servos 13.5 Stepper Motors 13.6 Kinds of Stepper Motors 13.7 Driving Stepper Motors 13.8 Controlling the Driver with a Translator 13.9 A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors CHAPTER 14 Hands-on Electronics 14.1 Safety 14.1.1 Some Safety Tips 14.1.2 Damaging Components with Electrostatic Discharge 14.1.3 Handling Precautions 14.2 Constructing Circuits 14.2.1 Drawing a Circuit Schematic 14.2.2 A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs 14.2.3 Making a Prototype of Your Circuit 14.2.4 The Final Circuit 14.2.5 A Note about Board Layout 14.2.6 Special Pieces of Hardware Used in Circuit Construction 14.2.7 Soldering 14.2.8 Desoldering 14.2.9 Enclosing the Circuit 14.2.10 Useful Items to Keep Handy 14.2.11 Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build 14.3 Multimeters 14.3.1 Basic Operation 14.3.2 How Analog VOMs Work 14.3.3 How Digital Multimeters Work 14.3.4 A Note on Measurement Errors 14.4 Oscilloscopes 14.4.1 How Scopes Work 14.4.2 Interior Circuitry of a Scope 14.4.3 Aiming the Beam 14.4.4 Scope Applications 14.4.5 What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do 14.4.6 Measuring Things with Scopes 14.4.7 Scope Applications APPENDICES APPENDIX A Power Distribution and Home Wiring A.1 Power Distribution A.2 A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity A.3 Home Wiring A.4 Electricity in Other Countries APPENDIX B Electronic Symbols APPENDIX C Useful Facts and Formulas C.1 Greek Alphabet C.2 Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes C.3 Linear Functions (y = mx + b) C.4 Quadratic Equation (y = ax2 + bx + c) C.5 Exponents and Logarithms C.6 Trigonometry C.7 Complex Numbers C.8 Differential Calculus APPENDIX D Finding Components APPENDIX E A Note on Injection Molding and Patents APPENDIX F History of Electronics Timeline APPENDIX G Component Data, List of Logic ICs, Foreign Semiconductor Codes G.1 Standard Resistance Values for 5% Carbon-Film Resistors G.2 Selection of Diodes G.3 Selection of Zener Diodes G.4 General Purpose Bipolar Transistors G.5 General Purpose Power Bipolar Transistors G.6 Selection of RF Transistors G.7 Selection of Small-Signal JFETs G.8 Selection of Power FETs G.9 Selection of Op Amps G.10 Common 4000 Series Logic ICs G.11 Common 7000 Series Logic ICs G.12 Semiconductor Codes APPENDIX H Analog/Digital Interfacing H.1 Triggering Simple Logic Responses from Analog Signals H.2 Using Logic to Drive External Loads H.3 Analog Switches H.4 Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer H.5 Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion H.6 Analog-to-Digital Converters APPENDIX I Displays I.1 LED Displays I.2 Alphanumeric LED Displays I.3 Liquid-Crystal Displays APPENDIX J Memory Devices J.1 Read-Only Memories (ROMs) J.2 Simple ROM Made Using Diodes J.3 Terms Used to Describe Memory Size and Organization J.4 Simple Programmable ROM J.5 Various Kinds of ROM Devices J.6 Random-Access Memories (RAMs) APPENDIX K Microprocessors and Microcontrollers K.1 Introduction to Microprocessors K.2 Microcontrollers

    Electronic Devices 9th Edition Book

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  • Electronic Devices 9th Edition Book

    Table of Content

    Electronic Devices 9th Edition Book

    1 Introduction to Electronics 1–1 The Atom 1–2 Materials Used in Electronics 1–3 Current in Semiconductors 1–4 N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors 1–5 The PN Junction GreenTech Application 1: Solar Power 2 Diodes and Applications 2–1 Diode Operation 2–2 Voltage-Current (V-I) Characteristics 2–3 Diode Models 2–4 Half-Wave Rectifiers 2–5 Full-Wave Rectifiers 2–6 Power Supply Filters and Regulators 2–7 Diode Limiters and Clampers 2–8 Voltage Multipliers 2–9 The Diode Datasheet 2–10 Troubleshooting Application Activity GreenTech Application 2: Solar Power 3 Special-Purpose Diodes 3–1 The Zener Diode 3–2 Zener Diode Applications 3–3 The Varactor Diode 3–4 Optical Diodes 3–5 Other Types of Diodes 3–6 Troubleshooting Application Activity GreenTech Application 3: Solar Power 4 Bipolar Junction Transistors 4–1 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Structure 4–2 Basic BJT Operation 4–3 BJT Characteristics and Parameters 4–4 The BJT as an Amplifier 4–5 The BJT as a Switch 4–6 The Phototransistor 4–7 Transistor Categories and Packaging 4–8 Troubleshooting Application Activity GreenTech Application 4: Solar Power 5 Transistor Bias Circuits 5–1 The DC Operating Point 5–2 Voltage-Divider Bias 5–3 Other Bias Methods 5–4 Troubleshooting Application Activity GreenTech Application 5: Wind Power 6 BJT Amplifiers 6–1 Amplifier Operation 6–2 Transistor AC Models 6–3 The Common-Emitter Amplifier 6–4 The Common-Collector Amplifier 6–5 The Common-Base Amplifier 6–6 Multistage Amplifiers 6–7 The Differential Amplifier 6–8 Troubleshooting Application Activity GreenTech Application 6: Wind Power 7 Power Amplifiers 7–1 The Class A Power Amplifier 7–2 The Class B and Class AB Push-Pull Amplifiers 7–3 The Class C Amplifier 7–4 Troubleshooting Application Activity 8 Field-Effect Transistors (FETs) 8–1 The JFET 8–2 JFET Characteristics and Parameters 8–3 JFET Biasing 8–4 The Ohmic Region 8–5 The MOSFET 8–6 MOSFET Characteristics and Parameters 8–7 MOSFET Biasing 8–8 The IGBT 8–9 Troubleshooting Application Activity 9 FET Amplifiers and Switching Circuits 9–1 The Common-Source Amplifier 9–2 The Common-Drain Amplifier 9–3 The Common-Gate Amplifier 9–4 The Class D Amplifier 9–5 MOSFET Analog Switching 9–6 MOSFET Digital Switching 9–7 Troubleshooting Application Activity 10 Amplifier Frequency Response 10–1 Basic Concepts 10–2 The Decibel 10–3 Low-Frequency Amplifier Response 10–4 High-Frequency Amplifier Response 10–5 Total Amplifier Frequency Response 10–6 Frequency Response of Multistage Amplifiers 10–7 Frequency Response Measurements Application Activity 11 Thyristors 11–1 The Four-Layer Diode 11–2 The Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) 11–3 SCR Applications 11–4 The Diac and Triac 11–5 The Silicon-Controlled Switch (SCS) 11–6 The Unijunction Transistor (UJT) 11–7 The Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT) Application Activity 12 The Operational Amplifier 12–1 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 12–2 Op-Amp Input Modes and Parameters 12–3 Negative Feedback 12–4 Op-Amps with Negative Feedback 12–5 Effects of Negative Feedback on Op-Amp Impedances 12–6 Bias Current and Offset Voltage 12–7 Open-Loop Frequency and Phase Responses 12–8 Closed-Loop Frequency Response 12–9 Troubleshooting Application Activity Programmable Analog Technology 13 Basic Op-Amp Circuits 13–1 Comparators 13–2 Summing Amplifiers 13–3 Integrators and Differentiators 13–4 Troubleshooting Application Activity Programmable Analog Technology 14 Special-Purpose Op-Amp Circuits 14–1 Instrumentation Amplifiers 14–2 Isolation Amplifiers 14–3 Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) 14–4 Log and Antilog Amplifiers 14–5 Converters and Other Op-Amp Circuits Application Activity Programmable Analog Technology 15 Active Filters 15–1 Basic Filter Responses 15–2 Filter Response Characteristics 15–3 Active Low-Pass Filters 15–4 Active High-Pass Filters 15–5 Active Band-Pass Filters 15–6 Active Band-Stop Filters 15–7 Filter Response Measurements Application Activity Programmable Analog Technology 16 Oscillators 16–1 The Oscillator 16–2 Feedback Oscillators 16–3 Oscillators with RC Feedback Circuits 16–4 Oscillators with LC Feedback Circuits 16–5 Relaxation Oscillators 16–6 The 555 Timer as an Oscillator Application Activity Programmable Analog Technology 17 Voltage Regulators 17–1 Voltage Regulation 17–2 Basic Linear Series Regulators 17–3 Basic Linear Shunt Regulators 17–4 Basic Switching Regulators 17–5 Integrated Circuit Voltage Regulators 17–6 Integrated Circuit Voltage Regulator Configurations Application Activity 18 Basic Programming Concepts for Automated Testing 18–1 Programming Basics 18–2 Automated Testing Basics 18–3 The Simple Sequential Program 18–4 Conditional Execution 18–5 Program Loops 18–6 Branching and Subroutines Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems Glossary Index

    All New Electronics Self Teaching Guide Third Edition Book

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  • All New Electronics Self Teaching Guide Third Edition Book

    Table of Content

    All New Electronics Self Teaching Guide Third Edition Book

    Chapter 1 DC Review and Pre-Test Current Flow Ohm’s Law Resistors in Series Resistors in Parallel Power Small Currents The Graph of Resistance The Voltage Divider The Current Divider Switches Capacitors in a DC Circuit Summary DC Pre-Test Chapter 2 The Diode Understanding Diodes The Diode Experiment Diode Breakdown The Zener Diode Summary Self-Test Answers to Self-Test Chapter 3 Introduction to the Transistor Understanding Transistors The Transistor Experiment The Junction Field Effect Transistor Self-Test Answers to Self-Test Chapter 4 The Transistor Switch Turning the Transistor on Turning the Transistor off Why Transistors are Used as Switches The Three-Transistor Switch Alternative Base Switching Switching The Jfet The Jfet Experiment Self-Test Answers to Self-Test Chapter 5 AC Pre-Test and Review The Generator Resistors in AC Circuits Capacitors in AC Circuits The Inductor in an AC Circuit Resonance Answers to Self-Test Chapter 6 AC in Electronics Capacitors in AC Circuits Capacitors and Resistors in Series The High Pass Filter Experiment Phase Shift of an RC Circuit Resistor and Capacitor in Parallel Inductors in AC Circuits Phase Shift for an RL Circuit Answers to Self-Test Chapter 7 Resonant Circuits The Capacitor and Inductor in Series The Output Curve Introduction to Oscillators Answers to Self-Test Chapter 8 Transistor Amplifiers Working with Transistor Amplifiers The Transistor Amplifier Experiment A Stable Amplifier Biasing The Emitter Follower Analyzing an Amplifier The JFET as an Amplifier The Operational Amplifier Answers to Self-Test Chapter 9 Oscillators Understanding Oscillators Feedback The Colpitts Oscillator Optional Experiment The Hartley Oscillator The Armstrong Oscillator Practical Oscillator Design Simple Oscillator Design Procedure Optional Experiment Oscillator Troubleshooting Checklist Summary and Applications Answers to Self-Test Chapter 10 The Transformer Transformer Basics Transformers in Communications Circuits Summary and Applications Answers to Self-Test Chapter 11 Power Supply Circuits Diodes in AC Circuits Produce Pulsating DC Level DC (Smoothing Pulsating DC) Answers to Self-Test Chapter 12 Conclusion and Final Self-Test Conclusion Final Self-Test Answers to Final Self-Test Appendix A Glossary Appendix B List of Symbols and Abbreviations Appendix C Powers of Ten and Engineering Prefixes Appendix D Standard Composition Resistor Values Appendix E Supplemental Resources Appendix F Equation Reference Appendix G Schematic Symbols Used in This Book

    Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 5th Edition Book

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    Table of Content

    Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 5th Edition Book

    PART 1 DC Circuits Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Systems of Units 1.3 Charge and Current 1.4 Voltage 1.5 Power and Energy 1.6 Circuit Elements 1.7 †Applications 1.7.1 TV Picture Tube 1.7.2 Electricity Bills 1.8 †Problem Solving 1.9 Summary Chapter 2 Basic Laws 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Ohm’s Law 2.3 †Nodes, Branches, and Loops 2.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws 2.5 Series Resistors and Voltage Division 2.6 Parallel Resistors and Current Division 2.7 †Wye-Delta Transformations 2.8 †Applications 2.8.1 Lighting Systems 2.8.2 Design of DC Meters 2.9 Summary Chapter 3 Methods of Analysis 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Nodal Analysis 3.3 Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources 3.4 Mesh Analysis 3.5 Mesh Analysis with Current Sources 3.6 †Nodal and Mesh Analyses by Inspection 3.7 Nodal Versus Mesh Analysis 3.8 Circuit Analysis with PSpice 3.9 †Applications: DC Transistor Circuits 3.10 Summary Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Linearity Property 4.3 Superposition 4.4 Source Transformation 4.5 Thevenin’s Theorem 4.6 Norton’s Theorem 4.7 †Derivations of Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 4.8 Maximum Power Transfer 4.9 Verifying Circuit Theorems with PSpice 4.10 †Applications 4.10.1 Source Modeling 4.10.2 Resistance Measurement 4.11 Summary Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Operational Amplifiers 5.3 Ideal Op Amp 5.4 Inverting Amplifier 5.5 Noninverting Amplifier 5.6 Summing Amplifier 5.7 Difference Amplifier 5.8 Cascaded Op Amp Circuits 5.9 Op Amp Circuit Analysis with PSpice 5.10 †Applications 5.10.1 Digital-to-Analog Converter 5.10.2 Instrumentation Amplifiers 5.11 Summary Chapter 6 Capacitors and Inductors 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Capacitors 6.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors 6.4 Inductors 6.5 Series and Parallel Inductors 6.6 †Applications 6.6.1 Integrator 6.6.2 Differentiator 6.6.3 Analog Computer 6.7 Summary Chapter 7 First-Order Circuits 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Source-Free RC Circuit 7.3 The Source-Free RL Circuit 7.4 Singularity Functions 7.5 Step Response of an RC Circuit 7.6 Step Response of an RL Circuit 7.7 †First-Order Op Amp Circuits 7.8 Transient Analysis with PSpice 7.9 †Applications 7.9.1 Delay Circuits 7.9.2 Photoflash Unit 7.9.3 Relay Circuits 7.9.4 Automobile Ignition Circuit 7.10 Summary Chapter 8 Second-Order Circuits 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values 8.3 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit 8.4 The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit 8.5 Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit 8.6 Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 8.7 General Second-Order Circuits 8.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits 8.9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits 8.10 †Duality 8.11 †Applications 8.11.1 Automobile Ignition System 8.11.2 Smoothing Circuits 8.12 Summary

    Digital Electronics Principles Devices and Applications Book

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  • Digital Electronics Principles Devices and Applications Book

    Table of Content

    Digital Electronics Principles Devices and Applications Book

    1 Number Systems - Digital Electronics

    1.1 Analogue Versus Digital - Digital Electronics 1.2 Introduction to Number Systems - Digital Electronics 1.3 Decimal Number System - Digital Electronics 1.4 Binary Number System - Digital Electronics 1.4.1 Advantages - Digital Electronics 1.5 Octal Number System - Digital Electronics 1.6 Hexadecimal Number System - Digital Electronics 1.7 Number Systems – Some Common Terms - Digital Electronics 1.7.1 Binary Number System - Digital Electronics 1.7.2 Decimal Number System - Digital Electronics 1.7.3 Octal Number System - Digital Electronics 1.7.4 Hexadecimal Number System - Digital Electronics 1.8 Number Representation in Binary - Digital Electronics 1.8.1 Sign-Bit Magnitude - Digital Electronics 1.8.2 1’s Complement - Digital Electronics 1.8.3 2’s Complement - Digital Electronics 1.9 Finding the Decimal Equivalent - Digital Electronics 1.9.1 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion - Digital Electronics 1.9.2 Octal-to-Decimal Conversion - Digital Electronics 1.9.3 Hexadecimal-to-Decimal Conversion - Digital Electronics 1.10 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion - Digital Electronics 1.11 Decimal-to-Octal Conversion - Digital Electronics 1.12 Decimal-to-Hexadecimal Conversion - Digital Electronics 1.13 Binary–Octal and Octal–Binary Conversions - Digital Electronics 1.14 Hex–Binary and Binary–Hex Conversions - Digital Electronics 1.15 Hex–Octal and Octal–Hex Conversions - Digital Electronics 1.16 The Four Axioms - Digital Electronics 1.17 Floating-Point Numbers - Digital Electronics 1.17.1 Range of Numbers and Precision - Digital Electronics 1.17.2 Floating-Point Number Formats - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    2 Binary Codes - Digital Electronics

    2.1 Binary Coded Decimal - Digital Electronics 2.1.1 BCD-to-Binary Conversion - Digital Electronics 2.1.2 Binary-to-BCD Conversion - Digital Electronics 2.1.3 Higher-Density BCD Encoding - Digital Electronics 2.1.4 Packed and Unpacked BCD Numbers - Digital Electronics 2.2 Excess-3 Code - Digital Electronics 2.3 Gray Code - Digital Electronics 2.3.1 Binary–Gray Code Conversion - Digital Electronics 2.3.2 Gray Code–Binary Conversion - Digital Electronics 2.3.3 n-ary Gray Code - Digital Electronics 2.3.4 Applications - Digital Electronics 2.4 Alphanumeric Codes - Digital Electronics 2.4.1 ASCII code - Digital Electronics 2.4.2 EBCDIC code - Digital Electronics 2.4.3 Unicode - Digital Electronics 2.5 Seven-segment Display Code - Digital Electronics 2.6 Error Detection and Correction Codes - Digital Electronics 2.6.1 Parity Code - Digital Electronics 2.6.2 Repetition Code - Digital Electronics 2.6.3 Cyclic Redundancy Check Code - Digital Electronics 2.6.4 Hamming Code - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    3 Digital Arithmetic - Digital Electronics

    3.1 Basic Rules of Binary Addition and Subtraction - Digital Electronics 3.2 Addition of Larger-Bit Binary Numbers - Digital Electronics 3.2.1 Addition Using the 2’s Complement Method - Digital Electronics 3.3 Subtraction of Larger-Bit Binary Numbers - Digital Electronics 3.3.1 Subtraction Using 2’s Complement Arithmetic - Digital Electronics 3.4 BCD Addition and Subtraction in Excess-3 Code - Digital Electronics 3.4.1 Addition - Digital Electronics 3.4.2 Subtraction - Digital Electronics 3.5 Binary Multiplication - Digital Electronics 3.5.1 Repeated Left-Shift and Add Algorithm - Digital Electronics 3.5.2 Repeated Add and Right-Shift Algorithm - Digital Electronics 3.6 Binary Division - Digital Electronics 3.6.1 Repeated Right-Shift and Subtract Algorithm - Digital Electronics 3.6.2 Repeated Subtract and Left-Shift Algorithm - Digital Electronics 3.7 Floating-Point Arithmetic - Digital Electronics 3.7.1 Addition and Subtraction - Digital Electronics 3.7.2 Multiplication and Division - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    4 Logic Gates and Related Devices - Digital Electronics

    4.1 Positive and Negative Logic - Digital Electronics 4.2 Truth Table - Digital Electronics 4.3 Logic Gates - Digital Electronics 4.3.1 OR Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.2 AND Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.3 NOT Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.4 EXCLUSIVE-OR Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.5 NAND Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.6 NOR Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.7 EXCLUSIVE-NOR Gate - Digital Electronics 4.3.8 INHIBIT Gate - Digital Electronics 4.4 Universal Gates - Digital Electronics 4.5 Gates with Open Collector/Drain Outputs - Digital Electronics 4.6 Tristate Logic Gates - Digital Electronics 4.7 AND-OR-INVERT Gates - Digital Electronics 4.8 Schmitt Gates - Digital Electronics 4.9 Special Output Gates - Digital Electronics 4.10 Fan-Out of Logic Gates - Digital Electronics 4.11 Buffers and Transceivers - Digital Electronics 4.12 IEEE/ANSI Standard Symbols - Digital Electronics 4.12.1 IEEE/ANSI Standards – Salient Features - Digital Electronics 4.12.2 ANSI Symbols for Logic Gate ICs - Digital Electronics 4.13 Some Common Applications of Logic Gates - Digital Electronics 4.13.1 OR Gate - Digital Electronics 4.13.2 AND Gate - Digital Electronics 4.13.3 EX-OR/EX-NOR Gate - Digital Electronics 4.13.4 Inverter - Digital Electronics 4.14 Application-Relevant Information - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    5 Logic Families - Digital Electronics

    5.1 Logic Families – Significance and Types - Digital Electronics 5.1.1 Significance - Digital Electronics 5.1.2 Types of Logic Family - Digital Electronics 5.2 Characteristic Parameters - Digital Electronics 5.3 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) - Digital Electronics 5.3.1 Standard TTL - Digital Electronics 5.3.2 Other Logic Gates in Standard TTL - Digital Electronics 5.3.3 Low-Power TTL - Digital Electronics 5.3.4 High-Power TTL (74H/54H) - Digital Electronics 5.3.5 Schottky TTL (74S/54S) - Digital Electronics 5.3.6 Low-Power Schottky TTL (74LS/54LS) - Digital Electronics 5.3.7 Advanced Low-Power Schottky TTL (74ALS/54ALS) - Digital Electronics 5.3.8 Advanced Schottky TTL (74AS/54AS) - Digital Electronics 5.3.9 Fairchild Advanced Schottky TTL (74F/54F) - Digital Electronics 5.3.10 Floating and Unused Inputs - Digital Electronics 5.3.11 Current Transients and Power Supply Decoupling - Digital Electronics 5.4 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) - Digital Electronics 5.4.1 Different Subfamilies - Digital Electronics 5.4.2 Logic Gate Implementation in ECL - Digital Electronics 5.4.3 Salient Features of ECL - Digital Electronics 5.5 CMOS Logic Family - Digital Electronics 5.5.1 Circuit Implementation of Logic Functions - Digital Electronics 5.5.2 CMOS Subfamilies - Digital Electronics 5.6 BiCMOS Logic - Digital Electronics 5.6.1 BiCMOS Inverter - Digital Electronics 5.6.2 BiCMOS NAND - Digital Electronics 5.7 NMOS and PMOS Logic - Digital Electronics 5.7.1 PMOS Logic - Digital Electronics 5.7.2 NMOS Logic - Digital Electronics 5.8 Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) Family - Digital Electronics 5.9 Comparison of Different Logic Families - Digital Electronics 5.10 Guidelines to Using TTL Devices - Digital Electronics 5.11 Guidelines to Handling and Using CMOS Devices - Digital Electronics 5.12 Interfacing with Different Logic Families - Digital Electronics 5.12.1 CMOS-to-TTL Interface - Digital Electronics 5.12.2 TTL-to-CMOS Interface - Digital Electronics 5.12.3 TTL-to-ECL and ECL-to-TTL Interfaces - Digital Electronics 5.12.4 CMOS-to-ECL and ECL-to-CMOS Interfaces - Digital Electronics 5.13 Classification of Digital ICs - Digital Electronics 5.14 Application-Relevant Information - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    6 Boolean Algebra and Simplification Techniques - Digital Electronics

    6.1 Introduction to Boolean Algebra - Digital Electronics 6.1.1 Variables, Literals and Terms in Boolean Expressions - Digital Electronics 6.1.2 Equivalent and Complement of Boolean Expressions - Digital Electronics 6.1.3 Dual of a Boolean Expression - Digital Electronics 6.2 Postulates of Boolean Algebra - Digital Electronics 6.3 Theorems of Boolean Algebra - Digital Electronics 6.3.1 Theorem 1 (Operations with ‘0’ and ‘1’) - Digital Electronics 6.3.2 Theorem 2 (Operations with ‘0’ and ‘1’) - Digital Electronics 6.3.3 Theorem 3 (Idempotent or Identity Laws) - Digital Electronics 6.3.4 Theorem 4 (Complementation Law) - Digital Electronics 6.3.5 Theorem 5 (Commutative Laws) - Digital Electronics 6.3.6 Theorem 6 (Associative Laws) - Digital Electronics 6.3.7 Theorem 7 (Distributive Laws) - Digital Electronics 6.3.8 Theorem 8 - Digital Electronics 6.3.9 Theorem 9 - Digital Electronics 6.3.10 Theorem 10 (Absorption Law or Redundancy Law) - Digital Electronics 6.3.11 Theorem 11 - Digital Electronics 6.3.12 Theorem 12 (Consensus Theorem) - Digital Electronics 6.3.13 Theorem 13 (DeMorgan’s Theorem) - Digital Electronics 6.3.14 Theorem 14 (Transposition Theorem) - Digital Electronics 6.3.15 Theorem 15 - Digital Electronics 6.3.16 Theorem 16 - Digital Electronics 6.3.17 Theorem 17 (Involution Law) - Digital Electronics 6.4 Simplification Techniques - Digital Electronics 6.4.1 Sum-of-Products Boolean Expressions - Digital Electronics 6.4.2 Product-of-Sums Expressions - Digital Electronics 6.4.3 Expanded Forms of Boolean Expressions - Digital Electronics 6.4.4 Canonical Form of Boolean Expressions - Digital Electronics 6.4.5  and  Nomenclature - Digital Electronics 6.5 Quine–McCluskey Tabular Method - Digital Electronics 6.5.1 Tabular Method for Multi-Output Functions - Digital Electronics 6.6 Karnaugh Map Method - Digital Electronics 6.6.1 Construction of a Karnaugh Map - Digital Electronics 6.6.2 Karnaugh Map for Boolean Expressions with a Larger Number of Variables - Digital Electronics 6.6.3 Karnaugh Maps for Multi-Output Functions - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    7 Arithmetic Circuits - Digital Electronics

    7.1 Combinational Circuits - Digital Electronics 7.2 Implementing Combinational Logic - Digital Electronics 7.3 Arithmetic Circuits – Basic Building Blocks - Digital Electronics 7.3.1 Half-Adder - Digital Electronics 7.3.2 Full Adder - Digital Electronics 7.3.3 Half-Subtractor - Digital Electronics 7.3.4 Full Subtractor - Digital Electronics 7.3.5 Controlled Inverter - Digital Electronics 7.4 Adder–Subtractor - Digital Electronics 7.5 BCD Adder - Digital Electronics 7.6 Carry Propagation–Look-Ahead Carry Generator - Digital Electronics 7.7 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - Digital Electronics 7.8 Multipliers - Digital Electronics 7.9 Magnitude Comparator - Digital Electronics 7.9.1 Cascading Magnitude Comparators - Digital Electronics 7.10 Application-Relevant Information - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    8 Multiplexers and Demultiplexers - Digital Electronics

    8.1 Multiplexer - Digital Electronics 8.1.1 Inside the Multiplexer - Digital Electronics 8.1.2 Implementing Boolean Functions with Multiplexers - Digital Electronics 8.1.3 Multiplexers for Parallel-to-Serial Data Conversion - Digital Electronics 8.1.4 Cascading Multiplexer Circuits - Digital Electronics 8.2 Encoders - Digital Electronics 8.2.1 Priority Encoder - Digital Electronics 8.3 Demultiplexers and Decoders - Digital Electronics 8.3.1 Implementing Boolean Functions with Decoders - Digital Electronics 8.3.2 Cascading Decoder Circuits - Digital Electronics 8.4 Application-Relevant Information - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    9 Programmable Logic Devices - Digital Electronics

    9.1 Fixed Logic Versus Programmable Logic - Digital Electronics 9.1.1 Advantages and Disadvantages - Digital Electronics 9.2 Programmable Logic Devices – An Overview - Digital Electronics 9.2.1 Programmable ROMs - Digital Electronics 9.2.2 Programmable Logic Array - Digital Electronics 9.2.3 Programmable Array Logic - Digital Electronics 9.2.4 Generic Array Logic - Digital Electronics 9.2.5 Complex Programmable Logic Device - Digital Electronics 9.2.6 Field-Programmable Gate Array - Digital Electronics 9.3 Programmable ROMs - Digital Electronics 9.4 Programmable Logic Array - Digital Electronics 9.5 Programmable Array Logic - Digital Electronics 9.5.1 PAL Architecture - Digital Electronics 9.5.2 PAL Numbering System - Digital Electronics 9.6 Generic Array Logic - Digital Electronics 9.7 Complex Programmable Logic Devices - Digital Electronics 9.7.1 Internal Architecture - Digital Electronics 9.7.2 Applications - Digital Electronics 9.8 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays - Digital Electronics 9.8.1 Internal Architecture - Digital Electronics 9.8.2 Applications - Digital Electronics 9.9 Programmable Interconnect Technologies - Digital Electronics 9.9.1 Fuse - Digital Electronics 9.9.2 Floating-Gate Transistor Switch - Digital Electronics 9.9.3 Static RAM-Controlled Programmable Switches - Digital Electronics 9.9.4 Antifuse - Digital Electronics 9.10 Design and Development of Programmable Logic Hardware - Digital Electronics 9.11 Programming Languages - Digital Electronics 9.11.1 ABEL-Hardware Description Language - Digital Electronics 9.11.2 VHDL-VHSIC Hardware Description Language - Digital Electronics 9.11.3 Verilog - Digital Electronics 9.11.4 Java HDL - Digital Electronics 9.12 Application Information on PLDs - Digital Electronics 9.12.1 SPLDs - Digital Electronics 9.12.2 CPLDs - Digital Electronics 9.12.3 FPGAs - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    10 Flip-Flops and Related Devices - Digital Electronics

    10.1 Multivibrator - Digital Electronics 10.1.1 Bistable Multivibrator - Digital Electronics 10.1.2 Schmitt Trigger - Digital Electronics 10.1.3 Monostable Multivibrator - Digital Electronics 10.1.4 Astable Multivibrator - Digital Electronics 10.2 Integrated Circuit (IC) Multivibrators - Digital Electronics 10.2.1 Digital IC-Based Monostable Multivibrator - Digital Electronics 10.2.2 IC Timer-Based Multivibrators - Digital Electronics 10.3 R-S Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 10.3.1 R-S Flip-Flop with Active LOW Inputs - Digital Electronics 10.3.2 R-S Flip-Flop with Active HIGH Inputs - Digital Electronics 10.3.3 Clocked R-S Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 10.4 Level-Triggered and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops - Digital Electronics 10.5 J-K Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 10.5.1 J-K Flip-Flop with PRESET and CLEAR Inputs - Digital Electronics 10.5.2 Master–Slave Flip-Flops - Digital Electronics 10.6 Toggle Flip-Flop (T Flip-Flop) - Digital Electronics 10.6.1 J-K Flip-Flop as a Toggle Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 10.7 D Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 10.7.1 J-K Flip-Flop as D Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 10.7.2 D Latch - Digital Electronics 10.8 Synchronous and Asynchronous Inputs - Digital Electronics 10.9 Flip-Flop Timing Parameters - Digital Electronics 10.9.1 Set-Up and Hold Times - Digital Electronics 10.9.2 Propagation Delay - Digital Electronics 10.9.3 Clock Pulse HIGH and LOW Times - Digital Electronics 10.9.4 Asynchronous Input Active Pulse Width - Digital Electronics 10.9.5 Clock Transition Times - Digital Electronics 10.9.6 Maximum Clock Frequency - Digital Electronics 10.10 Flip-Flop Applications - Digital Electronics 10.10.1 Switch Debouncing - Digital Electronics 10.10.2 Flip-Flop Synchronization - Digital Electronics 10.10.3 Detecting the Sequence of Edges - Digital Electronics 10.11 Application-Relevant Data - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    11 Counters and Registers - Digital Electronics

    11.1 Ripple (Asynchronous) Counter - Digital Electronics 11.1.1 Propagation Delay in Ripple Counters - Digital Electronics 11.2 Synchronous Counter - Digital Electronics 11.3 Modulus of a Counter - Digital Electronics 11.4 Binary Ripple Counter – Operational Basics - Digital Electronics 11.4.1 Binary Ripple Counters with a Modulus of Less than 2N - Digital Electronics 11.4.2 Ripple Counters in IC Form - Digital Electronics 11.5 Synchronous (or Parallel) Counters - Digital Electronics 11.6 UP/DOWN Counters - Digital Electronics 11.7 Decade and BCD Counters - Digital Electronics 11.8 Presettable Counters - Digital Electronics 11.8.1 Variable Modulus with Presettable Counters - Digital Electronics 11.9 Decoding a Counter - Digital Electronics 11.10 Cascading Counters - Digital Electronics 11.10.1 Cascading Binary Counters - Digital Electronics 11.10.2 Cascading BCD Counters - Digital Electronics 11.11 Designing Counters with Arbitrary Sequences - Digital Electronics 11.11.1 Excitation Table of a Flip-Flop - Digital Electronics 11.11.2 State Transition Diagram - Digital Electronics 11.11.3 Design Procedure - Digital Electronics 11.12 Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.12.1 Serial-In Serial-Out Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.12.2 Serial-In Parallel-Out Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.12.3 Parallel-In Serial-Out Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.12.4 Parallel-In Parallel-Out Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.12.5 Bidirectional Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.12.6 Universal Shift Register - Digital Electronics 11.13 Shift Register Counters - Digital Electronics 11.13.1 Ring Counter - Digital Electronics 11.13.2 Shift Counter - Digital Electronics 11.14 IEEE/ANSI Symbology for Registers and Counters - Digital Electronics 11.14.1 Counters - Digital Electronics 11.14.2 Registers - Digital Electronics 11.15 Application-Relevant Information - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    12 Data Conversion Circuits – D/A and A/D Converters - Digital Electronics

    12.1 Digital-to-Analogue Converters - Digital Electronics 12.1.1 Simple Resistive Divider Network for D/A Conversion - Digital Electronics 12.1.2 Binary Ladder Network for D/A Conversion - Digital Electronics 12.2 D/A Converter Specifications - Digital Electronics 12.2.1 Resolution - Digital Electronics 12.2.2 Accuracy - Digital Electronics 12.2.3 Conversion Speed or Settling Time - Digital Electronics 12.2.4 Dynamic Range - Digital Electronics 12.2.5 Nonlinearity and Differential Nonlinearity - Digital Electronics 12.2.6 Monotonocity - Digital Electronics 12.3 Types of D/A Converter - Digital Electronics 12.3.1 Multiplying D/A Converters - Digital Electronics 12.3.2 Bipolar-Output D/A Converters - Digital Electronics 12.3.3 Companding D/A Converters - Digital Electronics 12.4 Modes of Operation - Digital Electronics 12.4.1 Current Steering Mode of Operation - Digital Electronics 12.4.2 Voltage Switching Mode of Operation - Digital Electronics 12.5 BCD-Input D/A Converter - Digital Electronics 12.6 Integrated Circuit D/A Converters - Digital Electronics 12.6.1 DAC-08 - Digital Electronics 12.6.2 DAC-0808 - Digital Electronics 12.6.3 DAC-80 - Digital Electronics 12.6.4 AD 7524 - Digital Electronics 12.6.5 DAC-1408/DAC-1508 - Digital Electronics 12.7 D/A Converter Applications - Digital Electronics 12.7.1 D/A Converter as a Multiplier - Digital Electronics 12.7.2 D/A converter as a Divider - Digital Electronics 12.7.3 Programmable Integrator - Digital Electronics 12.7.4 Low-Frequency Function Generator - Digital Electronics 12.7.5 Digitally Controlled Filters - Digital Electronics 12.8 A/D Converters - Digital Electronics 12.9 A/D Converter Specifications - Digital Electronics 12.9.1 Resolution - Digital Electronics 12.9.2 Accuracy - Digital Electronics 12.9.3 Gain and Offset Errors - Digital Electronics 12.9.4 Gain and Offset Drifts - Digital Electronics 12.9.5 Sampling Frequency and Aliasing Phenomenon - Digital Electronics 12.9.6 Quantization Error - Digital Electronics 12.9.7 Nonlinearity - Digital Electronics 12.9.8 Differential Nonlinearity - Digital Electronics 12.9.9 Conversion Time - Digital Electronics 12.9.10 Aperture and Acquisition Times - Digital Electronics 12.9.11 Code Width - Digital Electronics 12.10 A/D Converter Terminology - Digital Electronics 12.10.1 Unipolar Mode Operation - Digital Electronics 12.10.2 Bipolar Mode Operation - Digital Electronics 12.10.3 Coding - Digital Electronics 12.10.4 Low Byte and High Byte - Digital Electronics 12.10.5 Right-Justified Data, Left-Justified Data - Digital Electronics 12.10.6 Command Register, Status Register - Digital Electronics 12.10.7 Control Lines - Digital Electronics 12.11 Types of A/D Converter - Digital Electronics 12.11.1 Simultaneous or Flash A/D Converters - Digital Electronics 12.11.2 Half-Flash A/D Converter - Digital Electronics 12.11.3 Counter-Type A/D Converter - Digital Electronics 12.11.4 Tracking-Type A/D Converter - Digital Electronics 12.11.5 Successive Approximation Type A/D Converter - Digital Electronics 12.11.6 Single-, Dual- and Multislope A/D Converters - Digital Electronics 12.11.7 Sigma-Delta A/D Converter - Digital Electronics 12.12 Integrated Circuit A/D Converters - Digital Electronics 12.12.1 ADC-0800 - Digital Electronics 12.12.2 ADC-0808 - Digital Electronics 12.12.3 ADC-80/AD ADC-80 - Digital Electronics 12.12.4 ADC-84/ADC-85/AD ADC-84/AD ADC-85/AD-5240 - Digital Electronics 12.12.5 AD 7820 - Digital Electronics 12.12.6 ICL 7106/ICL 7107 - Digital Electronics 12.13 A/D Converter Applications - Digital Electronics 12.13.1 Data Acquisition - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    13 Microprocessors - Digital Electronics

    13.1 Introduction to Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.2 Evolution of Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.3 Inside a Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.3.1 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - Digital Electronics 13.3.2 Register File - Digital Electronics 13.3.3 Control Unit - Digital Electronics 13.4 Basic Microprocessor Instructions - Digital Electronics 13.4.1 Data Transfer Instructions - Digital Electronics 13.4.2 Arithmetic Instructions - Digital Electronics 13.4.3 Logic Instructions - Digital Electronics 13.4.4 Control Transfer or Branch or Program Control Instructions - Digital Electronics 13.4.5 Machine Control Instructions - Digital Electronics 13.5 Addressing Modes - Digital Electronics 13.5.1 Absolute or Memory Direct Addressing Mode - Digital Electronics 13.5.2 Immediate Addressing Mode - Digital Electronics 13.5.3 Register Direct Addressing Mode - Digital Electronics 13.5.4 Register Indirect Addressing Mode - Digital Electronics 13.5.5 Indexed Addressing Mode - Digital Electronics 13.5.6 Implicit Addressing Mode and Relative Addressing Mode - Digital Electronics 13.6 Microprocessor Selection - Digital Electronics 13.6.1 Selection Criteria - Digital Electronics 13.6.2 Microprocessor Selection Table for Common Applications - Digital Electronics 13.7 Programming Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.8 RISC Versus CISC Processors - Digital Electronics 13.9 Eight-Bit Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.9.1 8085 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.9.2 Motorola 6800 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.9.3 Zilog Z80 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.10 16-Bit Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.10.1 8086 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.10.2 80186 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.10.3 80286 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.10.4 MC68000 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.11 32-Bit Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.11.1 80386 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.11.2 MC68020 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.11.3 MC68030 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.11.4 80486 Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.11.5 PowerPC RISC Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.12 Pentium Series of Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.12.1 Salient Features - Digital Electronics 13.12.2 Pentium Pro Microprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.12.3 Pentium II Series - Digital Electronics 13.12.4 Pentium III and Pentium IV Microprocessors - Digital Electronics 13.12.5 Pentium M, D and Extreme Edition Processors - Digital Electronics 13.12.6 Celeron and Xeon Processors - Digital Electronics 13.13 Microprocessors for Embedded Applications - Digital Electronics 13.14 Peripheral Devices - Digital Electronics 13.14.1 Programmable Timer/Counter - Digital Electronics 13.14.2 Programmable Peripheral Interface - Digital Electronics 13.14.3 Programmable Interrupt Controller - Digital Electronics 13.14.4 DMA Controller - Digital Electronics 13.14.5 Programmable Communication Interface - Digital Electronics 13.14.6 Math Coprocessor - Digital Electronics 13.14.7 Programmable Keyboard/Display Interface - Digital Electronics 13.14.8 Programmable CRT Controller - Digital Electronics 13.14.9 Floppy Disk Controller - Digital Electronics 13.14.10 Clock Generator - Digital Electronics 13.14.11 Octal Bus Transceiver - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    14 Microcontrollers - Digital Electronics

    14.1 Introduction to the Microcontroller - Digital Electronics 14.1.1 Applications - Digital Electronics 14.2 Inside the Microcontroller - Digital Electronics 14.2.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Digital Electronics 14.2.2 Random Access Memory (RAM) - Digital Electronics 14.2.3 Read Only Memory (ROM) - Digital Electronics 14.2.4 Special-Function Registers - Digital Electronics 14.2.5 Peripheral Components - Digital Electronics 14.3 Microcontroller Architecture - Digital Electronics 14.3.1 Architecture to Access Memory - Digital Electronics 14.3.2 Mapping Special-Function Registers into Memory Space - Digital Electronics 14.3.3 Processor Architecture - Digital Electronics 14.4 Power-Saving Modes - Digital Electronics 14.5 Application-Relevant Information - Digital Electronics 14.5.1 Eight-Bit Microcontrollers - Digital Electronics 14.5.2 16-Bit Microcontrollers - Digital Electronics 14.5.3 32-Bit Microcontrollers - Digital Electronics 14.6 Interfacing Peripheral Devices with a Microcontroller - Digital Electronics 14.6.1 Interfacing LEDs - Digital Electronics 14.6.2 Interfacing Electromechanical Relays - Digital Electronics 14.6.3 Interfacing Keyboards - Digital Electronics 14.6.4 Interfacing Seven-Segment Displays - Digital Electronics 14.6.5 Interfacing LCD Displays - Digital Electronics 14.6.6 Interfacing A/D Converters - Digital Electronics 14.6.7 Interfacing D/A Converters - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    15 Computer Fundamentals - Digital Electronics

    15.1 Anatomy of a Computer - Digital Electronics 15.1.1 Central Processing Unit - Digital Electronics 15.1.2 Memory - Digital Electronics 15.1.3 Input/Output Ports - Digital Electronics 15.2 A Computer System - Digital Electronics 15.3 Types of Computer System - Digital Electronics 15.3.1 Classification of Computers on the Basis of Applications - Digital Electronics 15.3.2 Classification of Computers on the Basis of the Technology Used - Digital Electronics 15.3.3 Classification of Computers on the Basis of Size and Capacity - Digital Electronics 15.4 Computer Memory - Digital Electronics 15.4.1 Primary Memory - Digital Electronics 15.5 Random Access Memory - Digital Electronics 15.5.1 Static RAM - Digital Electronics 15.5.2 Dynamic RAM - Digital Electronics 15.5.3 RAM Applications - Digital Electronics 15.6 Read Only Memory - Digital Electronics 15.6.1 ROM Architecture - Digital Electronics 15.6.2 Types of ROM - Digital Electronics 15.6.3 Applications of ROMs - Digital Electronics 15.7 Expanding Memory Capacity - Digital Electronics 15.7.1 Word Size Expansion - Digital Electronics 15.7.2 Memory Location Expansion - Digital Electronics 15.8 Input and Output Ports - Digital Electronics 15.8.1 Serial Ports - Digital Electronics 15.8.2 Parallel Ports - Digital Electronics 15.8.3 Internal Buses - Digital Electronics 15.9 Input/Output Devices - Digital Electronics 15.9.1 Input Devices - Digital Electronics 15.9.2 Output Devices - Digital Electronics 15.10 Secondary Storage or Auxiliary Storage - Digital Electronics 15.10.1 Magnetic Storage Devices - Digital Electronics 15.10.2 Magneto-Optical Storage Devices - Digital Electronics 15.10.3 Optical Storage Devices - Digital Electronics 15.10.4 USB Flash Drive - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics

    16 Troubleshooting Digital Circuits and Test Equipment - Digital Electronics

    16.1 General Troubleshooting Guidelines - Digital Electronics 16.1.1 Faults Internal to Digital Integrated Circuits - Digital Electronics 16.1.2 Faults External to Digital Integrated Circuits - Digital Electronics 16.2 Troubleshooting Sequential Logic Circuits - Digital Electronics 16.3 Troubleshooting Arithmetic Circuits - Digital Electronics 16.4 Troubleshooting Memory Devices - Digital Electronics 16.4.1 Troubleshooting RAM Devices - Digital Electronics 16.4.2 Troubleshooting ROM Devices - Digital Electronics 16.5 Test and Measuring Equipment - Digital Electronics 16.6 Digital Multimeter - Digital Electronics 16.6.1 Advantages of Using a Digital Multimeter - Digital Electronics 16.6.2 Inside the Digital Meter - Digital Electronics 16.6.3 Significance of the Half-Digit - Digital Electronics 16.7 Oscilloscope - Digital Electronics 16.7.1 Importance of Specifications and Front-Panel Controls - Digital Electronics 16.7.2 Types of Oscilloscope - Digital Electronics 16.8 Analogue Oscilloscopes - Digital Electronics 16.9 CRT Storage Type Analogue Oscilloscopes - Digital Electronics 16.10 Digital Oscilloscopes - Digital Electronics 16.11 Analogue Versus Digital Oscilloscopes - Digital Electronics 16.12 Oscilloscope Specifications - Digital Electronics 16.12.1 Analogue Oscilloscopes - Digital Electronics 16.12.2 Analogue Storage Oscilloscope - Digital Electronics 16.12.3 Digital Storage Oscilloscope - Digital Electronics 16.13 Oscilloscope Probes - Digital Electronics 16.13.1 Probe Compensation - Digital Electronics 16.14 Frequency Counter - Digital Electronics 16.14.1 Universal Counters – Functional Modes - Digital Electronics 16.14.2 Basic Counter Architecture - Digital Electronics 16.14.3 Reciprocal Counters - Digital Electronics 16.14.4 Continuous-Count Counters - Digital Electronics 16.14.5 Counter Specifications - Digital Electronics 16.14.6 Microwave Counters - Digital Electronics 16.15 Frequency Synthesizers and Synthesized Function/Signal Generators - Digital Electronics 16.15.1 Direct Frequency Synthesis - Digital Electronics 16.15.2 Indirect Synthesis - Digital Electronics 16.15.3 Sampled Sine Synthesis (Direct Digital Synthesis) - Digital Electronics 16.15.4 Important Specifications - Digital Electronics 16.15.5 Synthesized Function Generators - Digital Electronics 16.15.6 Arbitrary Waveform Generator - Digital Electronics 16.16 Logic Probe - Digital Electronics 16.17 Logic Analyser - Digital Electronics 16.17.1 Operational Modes - Digital Electronics 16.17.2 Logic Analyser Architecture - Digital Electronics 16.17.3 Key Specifications - Digital Electronics 16.18 Computer–Instrument Interface Standards - Digital Electronics 16.18.1 IEEE-488 Interface - Digital Electronics 16.19 Virtual Instrumentation - Digital Electronics 16.19.1 Use of Virtual Instruments - Digital Electronics 16.19.2 Components of a Virtual Instrument - Digital Electronics Review Questions - Digital Electronics Problems - Digital Electronics Further Reading - Digital Electronics Index - Digital Electronics

    Electronic Warfare Fundamentals Book

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  • Electronic Warfare Fundamentals Book

    Table of Content

    Electronic Warfare Fundamentals Book

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO RADAR 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. HISTORY 3. TARGET DISCRIMINANTS 4. INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS (lADS) 5. SUMMARY CHAPTER 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF RF RADIATION. 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. FREQUENCY 3. WAVELENGTH. 4. POLARIZATION . 5. DOPPLER EFFECT 6. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM . 7. RF PROPAGATION 8. SUMMARY CHAPTER 3. RADAR SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS . 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. PULSE WIDTH (PW) 3. PULSE RECURRENCE TIME (PRT) 4. PULSE REPETITION FREQUENCY (PRF) 5. RADAR RECEIVER CHARACTERISTICS. 6. DUTY CYCLE . 7. PEAK POWER 8. AVERAGE POWER 9. MODULATION 10. SUMMARY CHAPTER 4. RADAR SYSTEM COMPONENTS 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. PULSE RADAR SYSTEM. 3. CONTINUOUS WAVE (CW) RADAR . 4. PULSE DOPPLER RADAR 5. MONOPULSE RADAR . 6. SUMMARY CHAPTER 5. RADAR PRINCIPLES 1. INTRODUCTIO 2. RADAR RANGE 3. AZIMUTH DETERMINATION 4. ELEVATION DETERMINATION 5. RADAR RESOLUTION CELL . 6. PULSE DOPPLER VELOCITY DETERMINATION . 7. BASIC RADAR EQUATION 8. SUMMARY CHAPTER 6. ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS AND SCANS 1. INTRODUCTIO 2. PARABOLIC ANTENNA 3. CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA 4. PHASED ARRAY ANTENN 5. ANTENNA GAI 6. POWER DENSITY. 7. CIRCULAR SCAN . 8. LINEAR SCAN. 9. UNIDIRECTIONAL SCAN . 10. BIDIRECTIONAL SCAN 11. CONICAL SCAN 12. TRACK-WHILE-SCAN . 13. IMPACT OF TERRAIN ON RADAR SCANS. 14. SUMMARY. CHAPTER 7. TARGET TRACKIN 1. INTRODUCTIO 2. RANGE TRACKING 3. CONICAL SCA 4. TRACK-WHILE-SCAN (TWS) 5. LOBE-ON-RECEIVE-ONLY (LORO). 6. MONOPULSE RADAR 7. CONTINUOUS WAVE (CW) RADARS 8. PULSE DOPPLER RADAR. 9. SUMMARY CHAPTER 8. RADAR MISSILE GUIDANCE TECHNIQUE 1. INTRODUCTIO 2. COMMAND GUIDANC 3. SEMI-ACTIVE GUIDANC 4. ACTIVE GUIDANC 5. SEEKER-AIDED GROUND GUIDANCE/TRACK-VIA-MISSILE GUIDANCE. 6. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY (AAA) 7. SUMMARY CHAPTER 9. INTRODUCTION TO RADAR JAMMING 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. RADAR JAMMING TYPES. 3. RADAR JAMMING EMPLOYMENT OPTIONS 4. FUNDAMENTALS OF RADAR JAMMING. 5. SUMMARY CHAPTER 10. RADAR NOISE JAMMING. 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. RADAR NOISE JAMMING EFFECTIVENESS. 3. RADAR NOISE JAMMING GENERATION. 4. BARRAGE JAMMING 5. SPOT JAMMING. 6. SWEPT-SPOT JAMMING. 7. COVER PULSE JAMMING. 8. MODULATED NOISE JAMMING . 9. SUMMARY CHAPTER 11. DECEPTION JAMMING. 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. FALSE TARGET JAMMING. 3. RANGE DECEPTION JAMMING 4. ANGLE DECEPTION JAMMING 5. VELOCITY DECEPTION JAMMING. 6. MONOPULSE DECEPTION JAMMING 7. TERRAIN BOUNCE 8. SUMMARY CHAPTER 12. DECOYS 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. SATURATION DECOYS. 3. TOWED DECOYS. 4. EXPENDABLE ACTIVE DECOYS 5. SUMMARY CHAPTER 13. CHAFF EMPLOYMENT . 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. CHAFF CHARACTERISTICS. 3. CHAFF OPERATIONAL EMPLOYMENT. 4. SUMMARY CHAPTER 14. IR FUNDAMENTALS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. BASIC IR THEORY . 3. IR SIGNATURE SOURCES. 4. IR SEEKER CHARACTERISTICS. 5. IR SEEKER TYPES. 6. IR MISSILE FLARE REJECTION1 7. SUMMARY CHAPTER 15. IR COUNTERMEASURES 1. INTRODUCTION 2. FLARE CHARACTERISTICS 3. ADVANCED FLARES . 4. FLARE EMPLOYMENT. 5. IRCM TACTICS . 6. MISSILE APPROACH WARNING SYSTEMS (MAWS) 7. SUMMARY CHAPTER 16. RADAR ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (EP) TECHNIQUES 1. INTRODUCTION 2. RADAR RECEIVER PROTECTION 3. JAMMING SIGNAL AVOIDANCE . 4. JAMMING SIGNAL EXPLOITATION 5. OVERPOWERING THE JAMMING SIGNAL. 6. PULSE DURATION DISCRIMINATION 7. ANGLE DISCRIMINATION 8. BANDWIDTH DISCRIMINATION 9. DOPPLER DISCRIMINATION. 10. TIME DISCRIMINATION 11. SUMMARY. CHAPTER 17. RADAR WARNING RECEIVER (RWR) BASIC OPERATIONS AND GEOLOCATION TECHNIQUES 1. INTRODUCTION 2. RWR ANTENNAS 3. RWR RECEIVER/AMPLIFIERS. 4. SIGNAL PROCESSOR 5. EMITTER IDENTIFICATION (EID) TABLES . 6. RWR SCOPE DISPLAY 7. RWR AUDIO 8. RWR INTERFACE CONTROL UNIT (ICU) . 9. RWR LIMITATIONS. 10. THREAT GEOLOCATION TECHNIQUES 11. SUMMARY. CHAPTER 18. SELF-PROTECTION JAMMING SYSTEM OPERATIONS 1. INTRODUCTION. 2. RECEIVE ANTENNAS 3. RECEIVER SECTION . 4. SYSTEM PROCESSOR 5. JAMMING TECHNIQUES GENERATOR . 6. TRANSMIT ANTENNAS. 7. C-9492 CONTROL INDICATOR UNIT 8. JAMMING POD CONSIDERATIONS . 9. SUMMARY
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